Returns a list consisting of all the keys of the named hash, or the indices of an array. (In scalar context, returns the number of keys or indices.)
The keys of a hash are returned in an apparently random order. The actual
random order is subject to change in future versions of Perl, but it
is guaranteed to be the same order as either the
function produces (given that the hash has not been modified). Since
Perl 5.8.1 the ordering is different even between different runs of
Perl for security reasons (see Algorithmic Complexity Attacks in perlsec).
As a side effect, calling keys() resets the HASH or ARRAY's internal iterator (see each). In particular, calling keys() in void context resets the iterator with no other overhead.
Here is yet another way to print your environment:
or how about sorted by key:
The returned values are copies of the original keys in the hash, so modifying them will not affect the original hash. Compare values.
To sort a hash by value, you'll need to use a
Here's a descending numeric sort of a hash by its values:
Used as an lvalue,
keys allows you to increase the number of hash buckets
allocated for the given hash. This can gain you a measure of efficiency if
you know the hash is going to get big. (This is similar to pre-extending
an array by assigning a larger number to $#array.) If you say
- keys %hash = 200;
will have at least 200 buckets allocated for it--256 of them,
in fact, since it rounds up to the next power of two. These
buckets will be retained even if you do
%hash = ()
if you want to free the storage while
is still in scope.
You can't shrink the number of buckets allocated for the hash using
keys in this way (but you needn't worry about doing this by accident,
as trying has no effect).
in an lvalue context is a syntax