Sets and returns the random number seed for the
The point of the function is to "seed" the
rand function so that
rand can produce a different sequence each time you run your
program. When called with a parameter,
srand uses that for the seed;
otherwise it (semi-)randomly chooses a seed. In either case, starting with
Perl 5.14, it returns the seed.
srand() is not called explicitly, it is called implicitly without a
parameter at the first use of the
rand operator. However, this was not true
of versions of Perl before 5.004, so if your script will run under older
Perl versions, it should call
srand; otherwise most programs won't call
srand() at all.
But there are a few situations in recent Perls where programs are likely to
want to call
srand. One is for generating predictable results generally for
testing or debugging. There, you use
srand($seed), with the same
each time. Another other case is where you need a cryptographically-strong
starting point rather than the generally acceptable default, which is based on
time of day, process ID, and memory allocation, or the /dev/urandom device
if available. And still another case is that you may want to call
fork() to avoid child processes sharing the same seed value as the
parent (and consequently each other).
Do not call
srand() (i.e., without an argument) more than once per
process. The internal state of the random number generator should
contain more entropy than can be provided by any seed, so calling
srand() again actually loses randomness.
Most implementations of
srand take an integer and will silently
truncate decimal numbers. This means
srand(42) will usually
produce the same results as
srand(42.1). To be safe, always pass
srand an integer.
In versions of Perl prior to 5.004 the default seed was just the
time. This isn't a particularly good seed, so many old
programs supply their own seed value (often
time ^ $$
($$ + ($$ << 15))
), but that isn't necessary any more.
For cryptographic purposes, however, you need something much more random than the default seed. Checksumming the compressed output of one or more rapidly changing operating system status programs is the usual method. For example:
If you're particularly concerned with this, search the CPAN for random number generator modules instead of rolling out your own.
Frequently called programs (like CGI scripts) that simply use
- time ^ $$
for a seed can fall prey to the mathematical property that
- a^b == (a+1)^(b+1)
one-third of the time. So don't do that.
A typical use of the returned seed is for a test program which has too many combinations to test comprehensively in the time available to it each run. It can test a random subset each time, and should there be a failure, log the seed used for that run so that it can later be used to reproduce the exact results.