Extracts a substring out of EXPR and returns it. First character is at
, or whatever you've set
to (but don't do that).
If OFFSET is negative (or more precisely, less than
that far from the end of the string. If LENGTH is omitted, returns
everything to the end of the string. If LENGTH is negative, leaves that
many characters off the end of the string.
You can use the substr() function as an lvalue, in which case EXPR
must itself be an lvalue. If you assign something shorter than LENGTH,
the string will shrink, and if you assign something longer than LENGTH,
the string will grow to accommodate it. To keep the string the same
length you may need to pad or chop your value using
If OFFSET and LENGTH specify a substring that is partly outside the string, only the part within the string is returned. If the substring is beyond either end of the string, substr() returns the undefined value and produces a warning. When used as an lvalue, specifying a substring that is entirely outside the string is a fatal error. Here's an example showing the behavior for boundary cases:
An alternative to using substr() as an lvalue is to specify the replacement string as the 4th argument. This allows you to replace parts of the EXPR and return what was there before in one operation, just as you can with splice().