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umask

Perl 5 version 8.9 documentation
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umask

  • umask EXPR

  • umask

    Sets the umask for the process to EXPR and returns the previous value. If EXPR is omitted, merely returns the current umask.

    The Unix permission rwxr-x--- is represented as three sets of three bits, or three octal digits: 0750 (the leading 0 indicates octal and isn't one of the digits). The umask value is such a number representing disabled permissions bits. The permission (or "mode") values you pass mkdir or sysopen are modified by your umask, so even if you tell sysopen to create a file with permissions 0777 , if your umask is 0022 then the file will actually be created with permissions 0755 . If your umask were 0027 (group can't write; others can't read, write, or execute), then passing sysopen 0666 would create a file with mode 0640 (0666 &~ 027 is 0640 ).

    Here's some advice: supply a creation mode of 0666 for regular files (in sysopen) and one of 0777 for directories (in mkdir) and executable files. This gives users the freedom of choice: if they want protected files, they might choose process umasks of 022 , 027 , or even the particularly antisocial mask of 077 . Programs should rarely if ever make policy decisions better left to the user. The exception to this is when writing files that should be kept private: mail files, web browser cookies, .rhosts files, and so on.

    If umask(2) is not implemented on your system and you are trying to restrict access for yourself (i.e., (EXPR & 0700) > 0), produces a fatal error at run time. If umask(2) is not implemented and you are not trying to restrict access for yourself, returns undef.

    Remember that a umask is a number, usually given in octal; it is not a string of octal digits. See also oct, if all you have is a string.