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ExtUtils::MM_Any

Perl 5 version 20.1 documentation
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ExtUtils::MM_Any

NAME

ExtUtils::MM_Any - Platform-agnostic MM methods

SYNOPSIS

  1. FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY!
  2. package ExtUtils::MM_SomeOS;
  3. # Temporarily, you have to subclass both. Put MM_Any first.
  4. require ExtUtils::MM_Any;
  5. require ExtUtils::MM_Unix;
  6. @ISA = qw(ExtUtils::MM_Any ExtUtils::Unix);

DESCRIPTION

FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY!

ExtUtils::MM_Any is a superclass for the ExtUtils::MM_* set of modules. It contains methods which are either inherently cross-platform or are written in a cross-platform manner.

Subclass off of ExtUtils::MM_Any and ExtUtils::MM_Unix. This is a temporary solution.

THIS MAY BE TEMPORARY!

METHODS

Any methods marked Abstract must be implemented by subclasses.

Cross-platform helper methods

These are methods which help writing cross-platform code.

os_flavor Abstract

  1. my @os_flavor = $mm->os_flavor;

@os_flavor is the style of operating system this is, usually corresponding to the MM_*.pm file we're using.

The first element of @os_flavor is the major family (ie. Unix, Windows, VMS, OS/2, etc...) and the rest are sub families.

Some examples:

  1. Cygwin98 ('Unix', 'Cygwin', 'Cygwin9x')
  2. Windows ('Win32')
  3. Win98 ('Win32', 'Win9x')
  4. Linux ('Unix', 'Linux')
  5. MacOS X ('Unix', 'Darwin', 'MacOS', 'MacOS X')
  6. OS/2 ('OS/2')

This is used to write code for styles of operating system. See os_flavor_is() for use.

os_flavor_is

  1. my $is_this_flavor = $mm->os_flavor_is($this_flavor);
  2. my $is_this_flavor = $mm->os_flavor_is(@one_of_these_flavors);

Checks to see if the current operating system is one of the given flavors.

This is useful for code like:

  1. if( $mm->os_flavor_is('Unix') ) {
  2. $out = `foo 2>&1`;
  3. }
  4. else {
  5. $out = `foo`;
  6. }

can_load_xs

  1. my $can_load_xs = $self->can_load_xs;

Returns true if we have the ability to load XS.

This is important because miniperl, used to build XS modules in the core, can not load XS.

split_command

  1. my @cmds = $MM->split_command($cmd, @args);

Most OS have a maximum command length they can execute at once. Large modules can easily generate commands well past that limit. Its necessary to split long commands up into a series of shorter commands.

split_command will return a series of @cmds each processing part of the args. Collectively they will process all the arguments. Each individual line in @cmds will not be longer than the $self->max_exec_len being careful to take into account macro expansion.

$cmd should include any switches and repeated initial arguments.

If no @args are given, no @cmds will be returned.

Pairs of arguments will always be preserved in a single command, this is a heuristic for things like pm_to_blib and pod2man which work on pairs of arguments. This makes things like this safe:

  1. $self->split_command($cmd, %pod2man);

echo

  1. my @commands = $MM->echo($text);
  2. my @commands = $MM->echo($text, $file);
  3. my @commands = $MM->echo($text, $file, \%opts);

Generates a set of @commands which print the $text to a $file.

If $file is not given, output goes to STDOUT.

If $opts{append} is true the $file will be appended to rather than overwritten. Default is to overwrite.

If $opts{allow_variables} is true, make variables of the form $(...) will not be escaped. Other $ will. Default is to escape all $ .

Example of use:

  1. my $make = map "\t$_\n", $MM->echo($text, $file);

wraplist

  1. my $args = $mm->wraplist(@list);

Takes an array of items and turns them into a well-formatted list of arguments. In most cases this is simply something like:

  1. FOO \
  2. BAR \
  3. BAZ

maketext_filter

  1. my $filter_make_text = $mm->maketext_filter($make_text);

The text of the Makefile is run through this method before writing to disk. It allows systems a chance to make portability fixes to the Makefile.

By default it does nothing.

This method is protected and not intended to be called outside of MakeMaker.

cd Abstract

  1. my $subdir_cmd = $MM->cd($subdir, @cmds);

This will generate a make fragment which runs the @cmds in the given $dir. The rough equivalent to this, except cross platform.

  1. cd $subdir && $cmd

Currently $dir can only go down one level. "foo" is fine. "foo/bar" is not. "../foo" is right out.

The resulting $subdir_cmd has no leading tab nor trailing newline. This makes it easier to embed in a make string. For example.

  1. my $make = sprintf <<'CODE', $subdir_cmd;
  2. foo :
  3. $(ECHO) what
  4. %s
  5. $(ECHO) mouche
  6. CODE

oneliner Abstract

  1. my $oneliner = $MM->oneliner($perl_code);
  2. my $oneliner = $MM->oneliner($perl_code, \@switches);

This will generate a perl one-liner safe for the particular platform you're on based on the given $perl_code and @switches (a -e is assumed) suitable for using in a make target. It will use the proper shell quoting and escapes.

$(PERLRUN) will be used as perl.

Any newlines in $perl_code will be escaped. Leading and trailing newlines will be stripped. Makes this idiom much easier:

  1. my $code = $MM->oneliner(<<'CODE', [...switches...]);
  2. some code here
  3. another line here
  4. CODE

Usage might be something like:

  1. # an echo emulation
  2. $oneliner = $MM->oneliner('print "Foo\n"');
  3. $make = '$oneliner > somefile';

All dollar signs must be doubled in the $perl_code if you expect them to be interpreted normally, otherwise it will be considered a make macro. Also remember to quote make macros else it might be used as a bareword. For example:

  1. # Assign the value of the $(VERSION_FROM) make macro to $vf.
  2. $oneliner = $MM->oneliner('$$vf = "$(VERSION_FROM)"');

Its currently very simple and may be expanded sometime in the figure to include more flexible code and switches.

quote_literal Abstract

  1. my $safe_text = $MM->quote_literal($text);
  2. my $safe_text = $MM->quote_literal($text, \%options);

This will quote $text so it is interpreted literally in the shell.

For example, on Unix this would escape any single-quotes in $text and put single-quotes around the whole thing.

If $options{allow_variables} is true it will leave '$(FOO)' make variables untouched. If false they will be escaped like any other $ . Defaults to true.

escape_dollarsigns

  1. my $escaped_text = $MM->escape_dollarsigns($text);

Escapes stray $ so they are not interpreted as make variables.

It lets by $(...).

escape_all_dollarsigns

  1. my $escaped_text = $MM->escape_all_dollarsigns($text);

Escapes all $ so they are not interpreted as make variables.

escape_newlines Abstract

  1. my $escaped_text = $MM->escape_newlines($text);

Shell escapes newlines in $text.

max_exec_len Abstract

  1. my $max_exec_len = $MM->max_exec_len;

Calculates the maximum command size the OS can exec. Effectively, this is the max size of a shell command line.

make

  1. my $make = $MM->make;

Returns the make variant we're generating the Makefile for. This attempts to do some normalization on the information from %Config or the user.

Targets

These are methods which produce make targets.

all_target

Generate the default target 'all'.

blibdirs_target

  1. my $make_frag = $mm->blibdirs_target;

Creates the blibdirs target which creates all the directories we use in blib/.

The blibdirs.ts target is deprecated. Depend on blibdirs instead.

clean (o)

Defines the clean target.

clean_subdirs_target

  1. my $make_frag = $MM->clean_subdirs_target;

Returns the clean_subdirs target. This is used by the clean target to call clean on any subdirectories which contain Makefiles.

dir_target

  1. my $make_frag = $mm->dir_target(@directories);

Generates targets to create the specified directories and set its permission to PERM_DIR.

Because depending on a directory to just ensure it exists doesn't work too well (the modified time changes too often) dir_target() creates a .exists file in the created directory. It is this you should depend on. For portability purposes you should use the $(DIRFILESEP) macro rather than a '/' to separate the directory from the file.

  1. yourdirectory$(DIRFILESEP).exists

distdir

Defines the scratch directory target that will hold the distribution before tar-ing (or shar-ing).

dist_test

Defines a target that produces the distribution in the scratch directory, and runs 'perl Makefile.PL; make ;make test' in that subdirectory.

dynamic (o)

Defines the dynamic target.

makemakerdflt_target

  1. my $make_frag = $mm->makemakerdflt_target

Returns a make fragment with the makemakerdeflt_target specified. This target is the first target in the Makefile, is the default target and simply points off to 'all' just in case any make variant gets confused or something gets snuck in before the real 'all' target.

manifypods_target

  1. my $manifypods_target = $self->manifypods_target;

Generates the manifypods target. This target generates man pages from all POD files in MAN1PODS and MAN3PODS.

metafile_target

  1. my $target = $mm->metafile_target;

Generate the metafile target.

Writes the file META.yml (YAML encoded meta-data) and META.json (JSON encoded meta-data) about the module in the distdir. The format follows Module::Build's as closely as possible.

metafile_data

  1. my @metadata_pairs = $mm->metafile_data(\%meta_add, \%meta_merge);

Returns the data which MakeMaker turns into the META.yml file and the META.json file.

Values of %meta_add will overwrite any existing metadata in those keys. %meta_merge will be merged with them.

metafile_file

  1. my $meta_yml = $mm->metafile_file(@metadata_pairs);

Turns the @metadata_pairs into YAML.

This method does not implement a complete YAML dumper, being limited to dump a hash with values which are strings, undef's or nested hashes and arrays of strings. No quoting/escaping is done.

distmeta_target

  1. my $make_frag = $mm->distmeta_target;

Generates the distmeta target to add META.yml and META.json to the MANIFEST in the distdir.

mymeta

  1. my $mymeta = $mm->mymeta;

Generate MYMETA information as a hash either from an existing CPAN Meta file (META.json or META.yml) or from internal data.

write_mymeta

  1. $self->write_mymeta( $mymeta );

Write MYMETA information to MYMETA.json and MYMETA.yml.

realclean (o)

Defines the realclean target.

realclean_subdirs_target

  1. my $make_frag = $MM->realclean_subdirs_target;

Returns the realclean_subdirs target. This is used by the realclean target to call realclean on any subdirectories which contain Makefiles.

signature_target

  1. my $target = $mm->signature_target;

Generate the signature target.

Writes the file SIGNATURE with "cpansign -s".

distsignature_target

  1. my $make_frag = $mm->distsignature_target;

Generates the distsignature target to add SIGNATURE to the MANIFEST in the distdir.

special_targets

  1. my $make_frag = $mm->special_targets

Returns a make fragment containing any targets which have special meaning to make. For example, .SUFFIXES and .PHONY.

Init methods

Methods which help initialize the MakeMaker object and macros.

init_ABSTRACT

  1. $mm->init_ABSTRACT

init_INST

  1. $mm->init_INST;

Called by init_main. Sets up all INST_* variables except those related to XS code. Those are handled in init_xs.

init_INSTALL

  1. $mm->init_INSTALL;

Called by init_main. Sets up all INSTALL_* variables (except INSTALLDIRS) and *PREFIX.

init_INSTALL_from_PREFIX

  1. $mm->init_INSTALL_from_PREFIX;

init_from_INSTALL_BASE

  1. $mm->init_from_INSTALL_BASE

init_VERSION Abstract

  1. $mm->init_VERSION

Initialize macros representing versions of MakeMaker and other tools

MAKEMAKER: path to the MakeMaker module.

MM_VERSION: ExtUtils::MakeMaker Version

MM_REVISION: ExtUtils::MakeMaker version control revision (for backwards compat)

VERSION: version of your module

VERSION_MACRO: which macro represents the version (usually 'VERSION')

VERSION_SYM: like version but safe for use as an RCS revision number

DEFINE_VERSION: -D line to set the module version when compiling

XS_VERSION: version in your .xs file. Defaults to $(VERSION)

XS_VERSION_MACRO: which macro represents the XS version.

XS_DEFINE_VERSION: -D line to set the xs version when compiling.

Called by init_main.

init_tools

  1. $MM->init_tools();

Initializes the simple macro definitions used by tools_other() and places them in the $MM object. These use conservative cross platform versions and should be overridden with platform specific versions for performance.

Defines at least these macros.

  1. Macro Description
  2. NOOP Do nothing
  3. NOECHO Tell make not to display the command itself
  4. SHELL Program used to run shell commands
  5. ECHO Print text adding a newline on the end
  6. RM_F Remove a file
  7. RM_RF Remove a directory
  8. TOUCH Update a file's timestamp
  9. TEST_F Test for a file's existence
  10. TEST_S Test the size of a file
  11. CP Copy a file
  12. CP_NONEMPTY Copy a file if it is not empty
  13. MV Move a file
  14. CHMOD Change permissions on a file
  15. FALSE Exit with non-zero
  16. TRUE Exit with zero
  17. UMASK_NULL Nullify umask
  18. DEV_NULL Suppress all command output

init_others

  1. $MM->init_others();

Initializes the macro definitions having to do with compiling and linking used by tools_other() and places them in the $MM object.

If there is no description, its the same as the parameter to WriteMakefile() documented in ExtUtils::MakeMaker.

tools_other

  1. my $make_frag = $MM->tools_other;

Returns a make fragment containing definitions for the macros init_others() initializes.

init_DIRFILESEP Abstract

  1. $MM->init_DIRFILESEP;
  2. my $dirfilesep = $MM->{DIRFILESEP};

Initializes the DIRFILESEP macro which is the separator between the directory and filename in a filepath. ie. / on Unix, \ on Win32 and nothing on VMS.

For example:

  1. # instead of $(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)/extralibs.ld
  2. $(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)$(DIRFILESEP)extralibs.ld

Something of a hack but it prevents a lot of code duplication between MM_* variants.

Do not use this as a separator between directories. Some operating systems use different separators between subdirectories as between directories and filenames (for example: VOLUME:[dir1.dir2]file on VMS).

init_linker Abstract

  1. $mm->init_linker;

Initialize macros which have to do with linking.

PERL_ARCHIVE: path to libperl.a equivalent to be linked to dynamic extensions.

PERL_ARCHIVE_AFTER: path to a library which should be put on the linker command line after the external libraries to be linked to dynamic extensions. This may be needed if the linker is one-pass, and Perl includes some overrides for C RTL functions, such as malloc().

EXPORT_LIST: name of a file that is passed to linker to define symbols to be exported.

Some OSes do not need these in which case leave it blank.

init_platform

  1. $mm->init_platform

Initialize any macros which are for platform specific use only.

A typical one is the version number of your OS specific module. (ie. MM_Unix_VERSION or MM_VMS_VERSION).

init_MAKE

  1. $mm->init_MAKE

Initialize MAKE from either a MAKE environment variable or $Config{make}.

Tools

A grab bag of methods to generate specific macros and commands.

manifypods

Defines targets and routines to translate the pods into manpages and put them into the INST_* directories.

POD2MAN_macro

  1. my $pod2man_macro = $self->POD2MAN_macro

Returns a definition for the POD2MAN macro. This is a program which emulates the pod2man utility. You can add more switches to the command by simply appending them on the macro.

Typical usage:

  1. $(POD2MAN) --section=3 --perm_rw=$(PERM_RW) podfile1 man_page1 ...

test_via_harness

  1. my $command = $mm->test_via_harness($perl, $tests);

Returns a $command line which runs the given set of $tests with Test::Harness and the given $perl.

Used on the t/*.t files.

test_via_script

  1. my $command = $mm->test_via_script($perl, $script);

Returns a $command line which just runs a single test without Test::Harness. No checks are done on the results, they're just printed.

Used for test.pl, since they don't always follow Test::Harness formatting.

tool_autosplit

Defines a simple perl call that runs autosplit. May be deprecated by pm_to_blib soon.

arch_check

  1. my $arch_ok = $mm->arch_check(
  2. $INC{"Config.pm"},
  3. File::Spec->catfile($Config{archlibexp}, "Config.pm")
  4. );

A sanity check that what Perl thinks the architecture is and what Config thinks the architecture is are the same. If they're not it will return false and show a diagnostic message.

When building Perl it will always return true, as nothing is installed yet.

The interface is a bit odd because this is the result of a quick refactoring. Don't rely on it.

File::Spec wrappers

ExtUtils::MM_Any is a subclass of File::Spec. The methods noted here override File::Spec.

catfile

File::Spec <= 0.83 has a bug where the file part of catfile is not canonicalized. This override fixes that bug.

Misc

Methods I can't really figure out where they should go yet.

find_tests

  1. my $test = $mm->find_tests;

Returns a string suitable for feeding to the shell to return all tests in t/*.t.

find_tests_recursive

  1. my $tests = $mm->find_tests_recursive;

Returns a string suitable for feeding to the shell to return all tests in t/ but recursively.

extra_clean_files

  1. my @files_to_clean = $MM->extra_clean_files;

Returns a list of OS specific files to be removed in the clean target in addition to the usual set.

installvars

  1. my @installvars = $mm->installvars;

A list of all the INSTALL* variables without the INSTALL prefix. Useful for iteration or building related variable sets.

libscan

  1. my $wanted = $self->libscan($path);

Takes a path to a file or dir and returns an empty string if we don't want to include this file in the library. Otherwise it returns the the $path unchanged.

Mainly used to exclude version control administrative directories from installation.

platform_constants

  1. my $make_frag = $mm->platform_constants

Returns a make fragment defining all the macros initialized in init_platform() rather than put them in constants().

AUTHOR

Michael G Schwern <schwern@pobox.com> and the denizens of makemaker@perl.org with code from ExtUtils::MM_Unix and ExtUtils::MM_Win32.