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I18N::LangTags::List

Perl 5 version 18.2 documentation
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I18N::LangTags::List

NAME

I18N::LangTags::List -- tags and names for human languages

SYNOPSIS

  1. use I18N::LangTags::List;
  2. print "Parlez-vous... ", join(', ',
  3. I18N::LangTags::List::name('elx') || 'unknown_language',
  4. I18N::LangTags::List::name('ar-Kw') || 'unknown_language',
  5. I18N::LangTags::List::name('en') || 'unknown_language',
  6. I18N::LangTags::List::name('en-CA') || 'unknown_language',
  7. ), "?\n";

prints:

  1. Parlez-vous... Elamite, Kuwait Arabic, English, Canadian English?

DESCRIPTION

This module provides a function I18N::LangTags::List::name( langtag ) that takes a language tag (see I18N::LangTags) and returns the best attempt at an English name for it, or undef if it can't make sense of the tag.

The function I18N::LangTags::List::name(...) is not exported.

This module also provides a function I18N::LangTags::List::is_decent( langtag ) that returns true iff the language tag is syntactically valid and is for general use (like "fr" or "fr-ca", below). That is, it returns false for tags that are syntactically invalid and for tags, like "aus", that are listed in brackets below. This function is not exported.

The map of tags-to-names that it uses is accessible as %I18N::LangTags::List::Name, and it's the same as the list that follows in this documentation, which should be useful to you even if you don't use this module.

ABOUT LANGUAGE TAGS

Internet language tags, as defined in RFC 3066, are a formalism for denoting human languages. The two-letter ISO 639-1 language codes are well known (as "en" for English), as are their forms when qualified by a country code ("en-US"). Less well-known are the arbitrary-length non-ISO codes (like "i-mingo"), and the recently (in 2001) introduced three-letter ISO-639-2 codes.

Remember these important facts:

  • Language tags are not locale IDs. A locale ID is written with a "_" instead of a "-", (almost?) always matches m/^\w\w_\w\w\b/, and means something different than a language tag. A language tag denotes a language. A locale ID denotes a language as used in a particular place, in combination with non-linguistic location-specific information such as what currency is used there. Locales also often denote character set information, as in "en_US.ISO8859-1".

  • Language tags are not for computer languages.

  • "Dialect" is not a useful term, since there is no objective criterion for establishing when two language-forms are dialects of eachother, or are separate languages.

  • Language tags are not case-sensitive. en-US, en-us, En-Us, etc., are all the same tag, and denote the same language.

  • Not every language tag really refers to a single language. Some language tags refer to conditions: i-default (system-message text in English plus maybe other languages), und (undetermined language). Others (notably lots of the three-letter codes) are bibliographic tags that classify whole groups of languages, as with cus "Cushitic (Other)" (i.e., a language that has been classed as Cushtic, but which has no more specific code) or the even less linguistically coherent sai for "South American Indian (Other)". Though useful in bibliography, SUCH TAGS ARE NOT FOR GENERAL USE. For further guidance, email me.

  • Language tags are not country codes. In fact, they are often distinct codes, as with language tag ja for Japanese, and ISO 3166 country code .jp for Japan.

LIST OF LANGUAGES

The first part of each item is the language tag, between {...}. It is followed by an English name for the language or language-group. Language tags that I judge to be not for general use, are bracketed.

This list is in alphabetical order by English name of the language.

  • {ab} : Abkhazian

    eq Abkhaz

  • {ace} : Achinese
  • {ach} : Acoli
  • {ada} : Adangme
  • {ady} : Adyghe

    eq Adygei

  • {aa} : Afar
  • {afh} : Afrihili

    (Artificial)

  • {af} : Afrikaans
  • [{afa} : Afro-Asiatic (Other)]
  • {ak} : Akan

    (Formerly "aka".)

  • {akk} : Akkadian

    (Historical)

  • {sq} : Albanian
  • {ale} : Aleut
  • [{alg} : Algonquian languages]

    NOT Algonquin!

  • [{tut} : Altaic (Other)]
  • {am} : Amharic

    NOT Aramaic!

  • {i-ami} : Ami

    eq Amis. eq 'Amis. eq Pangca.

  • [{apa} : Apache languages]
  • {ar} : Arabic

    Many forms are mutually un-intelligible in spoken media. Notable forms: {ar-ae} UAE Arabic; {ar-bh} Bahrain Arabic; {ar-dz} Algerian Arabic; {ar-eg} Egyptian Arabic; {ar-iq} Iraqi Arabic; {ar-jo} Jordanian Arabic; {ar-kw} Kuwait Arabic; {ar-lb} Lebanese Arabic; {ar-ly} Libyan Arabic; {ar-ma} Moroccan Arabic; {ar-om} Omani Arabic; {ar-qa} Qatari Arabic; {ar-sa} Sauda Arabic; {ar-sy} Syrian Arabic; {ar-tn} Tunisian Arabic; {ar-ye} Yemen Arabic.

  • {arc} : Aramaic

    NOT Amharic! NOT Samaritan Aramaic!

  • {arp} : Arapaho
  • {arn} : Araucanian
  • {arw} : Arawak
  • {hy} : Armenian
  • {an} : Aragonese
  • [{art} : Artificial (Other)]
  • {ast} : Asturian

    eq Bable.

  • {as} : Assamese
  • [{ath} : Athapascan languages]

    eq Athabaskan. eq Athapaskan. eq Athabascan.

  • [{aus} : Australian languages]
  • [{map} : Austronesian (Other)]
  • {av} : Avaric

    (Formerly "ava".)

  • {ae} : Avestan

    eq Zend

  • {awa} : Awadhi
  • {ay} : Aymara
  • {az} : Azerbaijani

    eq Azeri

    Notable forms: {az-Arab} Azerbaijani in Arabic script; {az-Cyrl} Azerbaijani in Cyrillic script; {az-Latn} Azerbaijani in Latin script.

  • {ban} : Balinese
  • [{bat} : Baltic (Other)]
  • {bal} : Baluchi
  • {bm} : Bambara

    (Formerly "bam".)

  • [{bai} : Bamileke languages]
  • {bad} : Banda
  • [{bnt} : Bantu (Other)]
  • {bas} : Basa
  • {ba} : Bashkir
  • {eu} : Basque
  • {btk} : Batak (Indonesia)
  • {bej} : Beja
  • {be} : Belarusian

    eq Belarussian. eq Byelarussian. eq Belorussian. eq Byelorussian. eq White Russian. eq White Ruthenian. NOT Ruthenian!

  • {bem} : Bemba
  • {bn} : Bengali

    eq Bangla.

  • [{ber} : Berber (Other)]
  • {bho} : Bhojpuri
  • {bh} : Bihari
  • {bik} : Bikol
  • {bin} : Bini
  • {bi} : Bislama

    eq Bichelamar.

  • {bs} : Bosnian
  • {bra} : Braj
  • {br} : Breton
  • {bug} : Buginese
  • {bg} : Bulgarian
  • {i-bnn} : Bunun
  • {bua} : Buriat
  • {my} : Burmese
  • {cad} : Caddo
  • {car} : Carib
  • {ca} : Catalan

    eq Catalán. eq Catalonian.

  • [{cau} : Caucasian (Other)]
  • {ceb} : Cebuano
  • [{cel} : Celtic (Other)]

    Notable forms: {cel-gaulish} Gaulish (Historical)

  • [{cai} : Central American Indian (Other)]
  • {chg} : Chagatai

    (Historical?)

  • [{cmc} : Chamic languages]
  • {ch} : Chamorro
  • {ce} : Chechen
  • {chr} : Cherokee

    eq Tsalagi

  • {chy} : Cheyenne
  • {chb} : Chibcha

    (Historical) NOT Chibchan (which is a language family).

  • {ny} : Chichewa

    eq Nyanja. eq Chinyanja.

  • {zh} : Chinese

    Many forms are mutually un-intelligible in spoken media. Notable forms: {zh-Hans} Chinese, in simplified script; {zh-Hant} Chinese, in traditional script; {zh-tw} Taiwan Chinese; {zh-cn} PRC Chinese; {zh-sg} Singapore Chinese; {zh-mo} Macau Chinese; {zh-hk} Hong Kong Chinese; {zh-guoyu} Mandarin [Putonghua/Guoyu]; {zh-hakka} Hakka [formerly "i-hakka"]; {zh-min} Hokkien; {zh-min-nan} Southern Hokkien; {zh-wuu} Shanghaiese; {zh-xiang} Hunanese; {zh-gan} Gan; {zh-yue} Cantonese.

  • {chn} : Chinook Jargon

    eq Chinook Wawa.

  • {chp} : Chipewyan
  • {cho} : Choctaw
  • {cu} : Church Slavic

    eq Old Church Slavonic.

  • {chk} : Chuukese

    eq Trukese. eq Chuuk. eq Truk. eq Ruk.

  • {cv} : Chuvash
  • {cop} : Coptic
  • {kw} : Cornish
  • {co} : Corsican

    eq Corse.

  • {cr} : Cree

    NOT Creek! (Formerly "cre".)

  • {mus} : Creek

    NOT Cree!

  • [{cpe} : English-based Creoles and pidgins (Other)]
  • [{cpf} : French-based Creoles and pidgins (Other)]
  • [{cpp} : Portuguese-based Creoles and pidgins (Other)]
  • [{crp} : Creoles and pidgins (Other)]
  • {hr} : Croatian

    eq Croat.

  • [{cus} : Cushitic (Other)]
  • {cs} : Czech
  • {dak} : Dakota

    eq Nakota. eq Latoka.

  • {da} : Danish
  • {dar} : Dargwa
  • {day} : Dayak
  • {i-default} : Default (Fallthru) Language

    Defined in RFC 2277, this is for tagging text (which must include English text, and might/should include text in other appropriate languages) that is emitted in a context where language-negotiation wasn't possible -- in SMTP mail failure messages, for example.

  • {del} : Delaware
  • {din} : Dinka
  • {dv} : Divehi

    eq Maldivian. (Formerly "div".)

  • {doi} : Dogri

    NOT Dogrib!

  • {dgr} : Dogrib

    NOT Dogri!

  • [{dra} : Dravidian (Other)]
  • {dua} : Duala
  • {nl} : Dutch

    eq Netherlander. Notable forms: {nl-nl} Netherlands Dutch; {nl-be} Belgian Dutch.

  • {dum} : Middle Dutch (ca.1050-1350)

    (Historical)

  • {dyu} : Dyula
  • {dz} : Dzongkha
  • {efi} : Efik
  • {egy} : Ancient Egyptian

    (Historical)

  • {eka} : Ekajuk
  • {elx} : Elamite

    (Historical)

  • {en} : English

    Notable forms: {en-au} Australian English; {en-bz} Belize English; {en-ca} Canadian English; {en-gb} UK English; {en-ie} Irish English; {en-jm} Jamaican English; {en-nz} New Zealand English; {en-ph} Philippine English; {en-tt} Trinidad English; {en-us} US English; {en-za} South African English; {en-zw} Zimbabwe English.

  • {enm} : Old English (1100-1500)

    (Historical)

  • {ang} : Old English (ca.450-1100)

    eq Anglo-Saxon. (Historical)

  • {i-enochian} : Enochian (Artificial)
  • {myv} : Erzya
  • {eo} : Esperanto

    (Artificial)

  • {et} : Estonian
  • {ee} : Ewe

    (Formerly "ewe".)

  • {ewo} : Ewondo
  • {fan} : Fang
  • {fat} : Fanti
  • {fo} : Faroese
  • {fj} : Fijian
  • {fi} : Finnish
  • [{fiu} : Finno-Ugrian (Other)]

    eq Finno-Ugric. NOT Ugaritic!

  • {fon} : Fon
  • {fr} : French

    Notable forms: {fr-fr} France French; {fr-be} Belgian French; {fr-ca} Canadian French; {fr-ch} Swiss French; {fr-lu} Luxembourg French; {fr-mc} Monaco French.

  • {frm} : Middle French (ca.1400-1600)

    (Historical)

  • {fro} : Old French (842-ca.1400)

    (Historical)

  • {fy} : Frisian
  • {fur} : Friulian
  • {ff} : Fulah

    (Formerly "ful".)

  • {gaa} : Ga
  • {gd} : Scots Gaelic

    NOT Scots!

  • {gl} : Gallegan

    eq Galician

  • {lg} : Ganda

    (Formerly "lug".)

  • {gay} : Gayo
  • {gba} : Gbaya
  • {gez} : Geez

    eq Ge'ez

  • {ka} : Georgian
  • {de} : German

    Notable forms: {de-at} Austrian German; {de-be} Belgian German; {de-ch} Swiss German; {de-de} Germany German; {de-li} Liechtenstein German; {de-lu} Luxembourg German.

  • {gmh} : Middle High German (ca.1050-1500)

    (Historical)

  • {goh} : Old High German (ca.750-1050)

    (Historical)

  • [{gem} : Germanic (Other)]
  • {gil} : Gilbertese
  • {gon} : Gondi
  • {gor} : Gorontalo
  • {got} : Gothic

    (Historical)

  • {grb} : Grebo
  • {grc} : Ancient Greek

    (Historical) (Until 15th century or so.)

  • {el} : Modern Greek

    (Since 15th century or so.)

  • {gn} : Guarani

    Guaraní

  • {gu} : Gujarati
  • {gwi} : Gwich'in

    eq Gwichin

  • {hai} : Haida
  • {ht} : Haitian

    eq Haitian Creole

  • {ha} : Hausa
  • {haw} : Hawaiian

    Hawai'ian

  • {he} : Hebrew

    (Formerly "iw".)

  • {hz} : Herero
  • {hil} : Hiligaynon
  • {him} : Himachali
  • {hi} : Hindi
  • {ho} : Hiri Motu
  • {hit} : Hittite

    (Historical)

  • {hmn} : Hmong
  • {hu} : Hungarian
  • {hup} : Hupa
  • {iba} : Iban
  • {is} : Icelandic
  • {io} : Ido

    (Artificial)

  • {ig} : Igbo

    (Formerly "ibo".)

  • {ijo} : Ijo
  • {ilo} : Iloko
  • [{inc} : Indic (Other)]
  • [{ine} : Indo-European (Other)]
  • {id} : Indonesian

    (Formerly "in".)

  • {inh} : Ingush
  • {ia} : Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association)

    (Artificial) NOT Interlingue!

  • {ie} : Interlingue

    (Artificial) NOT Interlingua!

  • {iu} : Inuktitut

    A subform of "Eskimo".

  • {ik} : Inupiaq

    A subform of "Eskimo".

  • [{ira} : Iranian (Other)]
  • {ga} : Irish
  • {mga} : Middle Irish (900-1200)

    (Historical)

  • {sga} : Old Irish (to 900)

    (Historical)

  • [{iro} : Iroquoian languages]
  • {it} : Italian

    Notable forms: {it-it} Italy Italian; {it-ch} Swiss Italian.

  • {ja} : Japanese

    (NOT "jp"!)

  • {jv} : Javanese

    (Formerly "jw" because of a typo.)

  • {jrb} : Judeo-Arabic
  • {jpr} : Judeo-Persian
  • {kbd} : Kabardian
  • {kab} : Kabyle
  • {kac} : Kachin
  • {kl} : Kalaallisut

    eq Greenlandic "Eskimo"

  • {xal} : Kalmyk
  • {kam} : Kamba
  • {kn} : Kannada

    eq Kanarese. NOT Canadian!

  • {kr} : Kanuri

    (Formerly "kau".)

  • {krc} : Karachay-Balkar
  • {kaa} : Kara-Kalpak
  • {kar} : Karen
  • {ks} : Kashmiri
  • {csb} : Kashubian

    eq Kashub

  • {kaw} : Kawi
  • {kk} : Kazakh
  • {kha} : Khasi
  • {km} : Khmer

    eq Cambodian. eq Kampuchean.

  • [{khi} : Khoisan (Other)]
  • {kho} : Khotanese
  • {ki} : Kikuyu

    eq Gikuyu.

  • {kmb} : Kimbundu
  • {rw} : Kinyarwanda
  • {ky} : Kirghiz
  • {i-klingon} : Klingon
  • {kv} : Komi
  • {kg} : Kongo

    (Formerly "kon".)

  • {kok} : Konkani
  • {ko} : Korean
  • {kos} : Kosraean
  • {kpe} : Kpelle
  • {kro} : Kru
  • {kj} : Kuanyama
  • {kum} : Kumyk
  • {ku} : Kurdish
  • {kru} : Kurukh
  • {kut} : Kutenai
  • {lad} : Ladino

    eq Judeo-Spanish. NOT Ladin (a minority language in Italy).

  • {lah} : Lahnda

    NOT Lamba!

  • {lam} : Lamba

    NOT Lahnda!

  • {lo} : Lao

    eq Laotian.

  • {la} : Latin

    (Historical) NOT Ladin! NOT Ladino!

  • {lv} : Latvian

    eq Lettish.

  • {lb} : Letzeburgesch

    eq Luxemburgian, eq Luxemburger. (Formerly "i-lux".)

  • {lez} : Lezghian
  • {li} : Limburgish

    eq Limburger, eq Limburgan. NOT Letzeburgesch!

  • {ln} : Lingala
  • {lt} : Lithuanian
  • {nds} : Low German

    eq Low Saxon. eq Low German. eq Low Saxon.

  • {art-lojban} : Lojban (Artificial)
  • {loz} : Lozi
  • {lu} : Luba-Katanga

    (Formerly "lub".)

  • {lua} : Luba-Lulua
  • {lui} : Luiseno

    eq Luiseño.

  • {lun} : Lunda
  • {luo} : Luo (Kenya and Tanzania)
  • {lus} : Lushai
  • {mk} : Macedonian

    eq the modern Slavic language spoken in what was Yugoslavia. NOT the form of Greek spoken in Greek Macedonia!

  • {mad} : Madurese
  • {mag} : Magahi
  • {mai} : Maithili
  • {mak} : Makasar
  • {mg} : Malagasy
  • {ms} : Malay

    NOT Malayalam!

  • {ml} : Malayalam

    NOT Malay!

  • {mt} : Maltese
  • {mnc} : Manchu
  • {mdr} : Mandar

    NOT Mandarin!

  • {man} : Mandingo
  • {mni} : Manipuri

    eq Meithei.

  • [{mno} : Manobo languages]
  • {gv} : Manx
  • {mi} : Maori

    NOT Mari!

  • {mr} : Marathi
  • {chm} : Mari

    NOT Maori!

  • {mh} : Marshall

    eq Marshallese.

  • {mwr} : Marwari
  • {mas} : Masai
  • [{myn} : Mayan languages]
  • {men} : Mende
  • {mic} : Micmac
  • {min} : Minangkabau
  • {i-mingo} : Mingo

    eq the Irquoian language West Virginia Seneca. NOT New York Seneca!

  • [{mis} : Miscellaneous languages]

    Don't use this.

  • {moh} : Mohawk
  • {mdf} : Moksha
  • {mo} : Moldavian

    eq Moldovan.

  • [{mkh} : Mon-Khmer (Other)]
  • {lol} : Mongo
  • {mn} : Mongolian

    eq Mongol.

  • {mos} : Mossi
  • [{mul} : Multiple languages]

    Not for normal use.

  • [{mun} : Munda languages]
  • {nah} : Nahuatl
  • {nap} : Neapolitan
  • {na} : Nauru
  • {nv} : Navajo

    eq Navaho. (Formerly "i-navajo".)

  • {nd} : North Ndebele
  • {nr} : South Ndebele
  • {ng} : Ndonga
  • {ne} : Nepali

    eq Nepalese. Notable forms: {ne-np} Nepal Nepali; {ne-in} India Nepali.

  • {new} : Newari
  • {nia} : Nias
  • [{nic} : Niger-Kordofanian (Other)]
  • [{ssa} : Nilo-Saharan (Other)]
  • {niu} : Niuean
  • {nog} : Nogai
  • {non} : Old Norse

    (Historical)

  • [{nai} : North American Indian]

    Do not use this.

  • {no} : Norwegian

    Note the two following forms:

  • {nb} : Norwegian Bokmal

    eq Bokmål, (A form of Norwegian.) (Formerly "no-bok".)

  • {nn} : Norwegian Nynorsk

    (A form of Norwegian.) (Formerly "no-nyn".)

  • [{nub} : Nubian languages]
  • {nym} : Nyamwezi
  • {nyn} : Nyankole
  • {nyo} : Nyoro
  • {nzi} : Nzima
  • {oc} : Occitan (post 1500)

    eq Provençal, eq Provencal

  • {oj} : Ojibwa

    eq Ojibwe. (Formerly "oji".)

  • {or} : Oriya
  • {om} : Oromo
  • {osa} : Osage
  • {os} : Ossetian; Ossetic
  • [{oto} : Otomian languages]

    Group of languages collectively called "Otomí".

  • {pal} : Pahlavi

    eq Pahlevi

  • {i-pwn} : Paiwan

    eq Pariwan

  • {pau} : Palauan
  • {pi} : Pali

    (Historical?)

  • {pam} : Pampanga
  • {pag} : Pangasinan
  • {pa} : Panjabi

    eq Punjabi

  • {pap} : Papiamento

    eq Papiamentu.

  • [{paa} : Papuan (Other)]
  • {fa} : Persian

    eq Farsi. eq Iranian.

  • {peo} : Old Persian (ca.600-400 B.C.)
  • [{phi} : Philippine (Other)]
  • {phn} : Phoenician

    (Historical)

  • {pon} : Pohnpeian

    NOT Pompeiian!

  • {pl} : Polish
  • {pt} : Portuguese

    eq Portugese. Notable forms: {pt-pt} Portugal Portuguese; {pt-br} Brazilian Portuguese.

  • [{pra} : Prakrit languages]
  • {pro} : Old Provencal (to 1500)

    eq Old Provençal. (Historical.)

  • {ps} : Pushto

    eq Pashto. eq Pushtu.

  • {qu} : Quechua

    eq Quecha.

  • {rm} : Raeto-Romance

    eq Romansh.

  • {raj} : Rajasthani
  • {rap} : Rapanui
  • {rar} : Rarotongan
  • [{qaa - qtz} : Reserved for local use.]
  • [{roa} : Romance (Other)]

    NOT Romanian! NOT Romany! NOT Romansh!

  • {ro} : Romanian

    eq Rumanian. NOT Romany!

  • {rom} : Romany

    eq Rom. NOT Romanian!

  • {rn} : Rundi
  • {ru} : Russian

    NOT White Russian! NOT Rusyn!

  • [{sal} : Salishan languages]

    Large language group.

  • {sam} : Samaritan Aramaic

    NOT Aramaic!

  • {se} : Northern Sami

    eq Lappish. eq Lapp. eq (Northern) Saami.

  • {sma} : Southern Sami
  • {smn} : Inari Sami
  • {smj} : Lule Sami
  • {sms} : Skolt Sami
  • [{smi} : Sami languages (Other)]
  • {sm} : Samoan
  • {sad} : Sandawe
  • {sg} : Sango
  • {sa} : Sanskrit

    (Historical)

  • {sat} : Santali
  • {sc} : Sardinian

    eq Sard.

  • {sas} : Sasak
  • {sco} : Scots

    NOT Scots Gaelic!

  • {sel} : Selkup
  • [{sem} : Semitic (Other)]
  • {sr} : Serbian

    eq Serb. NOT Sorbian.

    Notable forms: {sr-Cyrl} : Serbian in Cyrillic script; {sr-Latn} : Serbian in Latin script.

  • {srr} : Serer
  • {shn} : Shan
  • {sn} : Shona
  • {sid} : Sidamo
  • {sgn-...} : Sign Languages

    Always use with a subtag. Notable forms: {sgn-gb} British Sign Language (BSL); {sgn-ie} Irish Sign Language (ESL); {sgn-ni} Nicaraguan Sign Language (ISN); {sgn-us} American Sign Language (ASL).

    (And so on with other country codes as the subtag.)

  • {bla} : Siksika

    eq Blackfoot. eq Pikanii.

  • {sd} : Sindhi
  • {si} : Sinhalese

    eq Sinhala.

  • [{sit} : Sino-Tibetan (Other)]
  • [{sio} : Siouan languages]
  • {den} : Slave (Athapascan)

    ("Slavey" is a subform.)

  • [{sla} : Slavic (Other)]
  • {sk} : Slovak

    eq Slovakian.

  • {sl} : Slovenian

    eq Slovene.

  • {sog} : Sogdian
  • {so} : Somali
  • {son} : Songhai
  • {snk} : Soninke
  • {wen} : Sorbian languages

    eq Wendish. eq Sorb. eq Lusatian. eq Wend. NOT Venda! NOT Serbian!

  • {nso} : Northern Sotho
  • {st} : Southern Sotho

    eq Sutu. eq Sesotho.

  • [{sai} : South American Indian (Other)]
  • {es} : Spanish

    Notable forms: {es-ar} Argentine Spanish; {es-bo} Bolivian Spanish; {es-cl} Chilean Spanish; {es-co} Colombian Spanish; {es-do} Dominican Spanish; {es-ec} Ecuadorian Spanish; {es-es} Spain Spanish; {es-gt} Guatemalan Spanish; {es-hn} Honduran Spanish; {es-mx} Mexican Spanish; {es-pa} Panamanian Spanish; {es-pe} Peruvian Spanish; {es-pr} Puerto Rican Spanish; {es-py} Paraguay Spanish; {es-sv} Salvadoran Spanish; {es-us} US Spanish; {es-uy} Uruguayan Spanish; {es-ve} Venezuelan Spanish.

  • {suk} : Sukuma
  • {sux} : Sumerian

    (Historical)

  • {su} : Sundanese
  • {sus} : Susu
  • {sw} : Swahili

    eq Kiswahili

  • {ss} : Swati
  • {sv} : Swedish

    Notable forms: {sv-se} Sweden Swedish; {sv-fi} Finland Swedish.

  • {syr} : Syriac
  • {tl} : Tagalog
  • {ty} : Tahitian
  • [{tai} : Tai (Other)]

    NOT Thai!

  • {tg} : Tajik
  • {tmh} : Tamashek
  • {ta} : Tamil
  • {i-tao} : Tao

    eq Yami.

  • {tt} : Tatar
  • {i-tay} : Tayal

    eq Atayal. eq Atayan.

  • {te} : Telugu
  • {ter} : Tereno
  • {tet} : Tetum
  • {th} : Thai

    NOT Tai!

  • {bo} : Tibetan
  • {tig} : Tigre
  • {ti} : Tigrinya
  • {tem} : Timne

    eq Themne. eq Timene.

  • {tiv} : Tiv
  • {tli} : Tlingit
  • {tpi} : Tok Pisin
  • {tkl} : Tokelau
  • {tog} : Tonga (Nyasa)

    NOT Tsonga!

  • {to} : Tonga (Tonga Islands)

    (Pronounced "Tong-a", not "Tong-ga")

    NOT Tsonga!

  • {tsi} : Tsimshian

    eq Sm'algyax

  • {ts} : Tsonga

    NOT Tonga!

  • {i-tsu} : Tsou
  • {tn} : Tswana

    Same as Setswana.

  • {tum} : Tumbuka
  • [{tup} : Tupi languages]
  • {tr} : Turkish

    (Typically in Roman script)

  • {ota} : Ottoman Turkish (1500-1928)

    (Typically in Arabic script) (Historical)

  • {crh} : Crimean Turkish

    eq Crimean Tatar

  • {tk} : Turkmen

    eq Turkmeni.

  • {tvl} : Tuvalu
  • {tyv} : Tuvinian

    eq Tuvan. eq Tuvin.

  • {tw} : Twi
  • {udm} : Udmurt
  • {uga} : Ugaritic

    NOT Ugric!

  • {ug} : Uighur
  • {uk} : Ukrainian
  • {umb} : Umbundu
  • {und} : Undetermined

    Not a tag for normal use.

  • {ur} : Urdu
  • {uz} : Uzbek

    eq Özbek

    Notable forms: {uz-Cyrl} Uzbek in Cyrillic script; {uz-Latn} Uzbek in Latin script.

  • {vai} : Vai
  • {ve} : Venda

    NOT Wendish! NOT Wend! NOT Avestan! (Formerly "ven".)

  • {vi} : Vietnamese

    eq Viet.

  • {vo} : Volapuk

    eq Volapük. (Artificial)

  • {vot} : Votic

    eq Votian. eq Vod.

  • [{wak} : Wakashan languages]
  • {wa} : Walloon
  • {wal} : Walamo

    eq Wolaytta.

  • {war} : Waray

    Presumably the Philippine language Waray-Waray (Samareño), not the smaller Philippine language Waray Sorsogon, nor the extinct Australian language Waray.

  • {was} : Washo

    eq Washoe

  • {cy} : Welsh
  • {wo} : Wolof
  • {x-...} : Unregistered (Semi-Private Use)

    "x-" is a prefix for language tags that are not registered with ISO or IANA. Example, x-double-dutch

  • {xh} : Xhosa
  • {sah} : Yakut
  • {yao} : Yao

    (The Yao in Malawi?)

  • {yap} : Yapese

    eq Yap

  • {ii} : Sichuan Yi
  • {yi} : Yiddish

    Formerly "ji". Usually in Hebrew script.

    Notable forms: {yi-latn} Yiddish in Latin script

  • {yo} : Yoruba
  • [{ypk} : Yupik languages]

    Several "Eskimo" languages.

  • {znd} : Zande
  • [{zap} : Zapotec]

    (A group of languages.)

  • {zen} : Zenaga

    NOT Zend.

  • {za} : Zhuang
  • {zu} : Zulu
  • {zun} : Zuni

    eq Zuñi

SEE ALSO

I18N::LangTags and its "See Also" section.

COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMER

Copyright (c) 2001+ Sean M. Burke. All rights reserved.

You can redistribute and/or modify this document under the same terms as Perl itself.

This document is provided in the hope that it will be useful, but without any warranty; without even the implied warranty of accuracy, authoritativeness, completeness, merchantability, or fitness for a particular purpose.

Email any corrections or questions to me.

AUTHOR

Sean M. Burke, sburke@cpan.org