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Perl 5 version 22.0 documentation
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SDBM_File - Tied access to sdbm files


  1. use Fcntl; # For O_RDWR, O_CREAT, etc.
  2. use SDBM_File;
  3. tie(%h, 'SDBM_File', 'filename', O_RDWR|O_CREAT, 0666)
  4. or die "Couldn't tie SDBM file 'filename': $!; aborting";
  5. # Now read and change the hash
  6. $h{newkey} = newvalue;
  7. print $h{oldkey};
  8. ...
  9. untie %h;


SDBM_File establishes a connection between a Perl hash variable and a file in SDBM_File format. You can manipulate the data in the file just as if it were in a Perl hash, but when your program exits, the data will remain in the file, to be used the next time your program runs.


Use SDBM_File with the Perl built-in tie function to establish the connection between the variable and the file.

  1. tie %hash, 'SDBM_File', $basename, $modeflags, $perms;
  2. tie %hash, 'SDBM_File', $dirfile, $modeflags, $perms, $pagfilename;

$basename is the base filename for the database. The database is two files with ".dir" and ".pag" extensions appended to $basename ,

  1. $basename.dir (or .sdbm_dir on VMS, per DIRFEXT constant)
  2. $basename.pag

The two filenames can also be given separately in full as $dirfile and $pagfilename . This suits for two files without ".dir" and ".pag" extensions, perhaps for example two files from File::Temp.

$modeflags can be the following constants from the Fcntl module (in the style of the open(2) system call),

  1. O_RDONLY read-only access
  2. O_WRONLY write-only access
  3. O_RDWR read and write access

If you want to create the file if it does not already exist then bitwise-OR (|) O_CREAT too. If you omit O_CREAT and the database does not already exist then the tie call will fail.

  1. O_CREAT create database if doesn't already exist

$perms is the file permissions bits to use if new database files are created. This parameter is mandatory even when not creating a new database. The permissions will be reduced by the user's umask so the usual value here would be 0666, or if some very private data then 0600. (See umask.)


SDBM_File optionally exports the following constants:

  • PAGFEXT - the extension used for the page file, usually .pag .

  • DIRFEXT - the extension used for the directory file, .dir everywhere but VMS, where it is .sdbm_dir .

  • PAIRMAX - the maximum size of a stored hash entry, including the length of both the key and value.

These constants can also be used with fully qualified names, eg. SDBM_File::PAGFEXT .


On failure, the tie call returns an undefined value and probably sets $! to contain the reason the file could not be tied.

sdbm store returned -1, errno 22, key "..." at ...

This warning is emitted when you try to store a key or a value that is too long. It means that the change was not recorded in the database. See BUGS AND WARNINGS below.


There are a number of limits on the size of the data that you can store in the SDBM file. The most important is that the length of a key, plus the length of its associated value, may not exceed 1008 bytes.

See tie, perldbmfilter, Fcntl