Sets and returns the random number seed for the
The point of the function is to "seed" the
rand function so that
can produce a different sequence each time you run your program. When
called with a parameter,
srand uses that for the seed; otherwise it
(semi-)randomly chooses a seed. In either case, starting with Perl 5.14,
it returns the seed. To signal that your code will work only on Perls
of a recent vintage:
- use 5.014; # so srand returns the seed
srand() is not called explicitly, it is called implicitly without a
parameter at the first use of the
rand operator. However, this was not true
of versions of Perl before 5.004, so if your script will run under older
Perl versions, it should call
srand; otherwise most programs won't call
srand() at all.
But there are a few situations in recent Perls where programs are likely to
want to call
srand. One is for generating predictable results generally for
testing or debugging. There, you use
srand($seed), with the same
each time. Another case is that you may want to call
fork() to avoid child processes sharing the same seed value as the
parent (and consequently each other).
Do not call
srand() (i.e., without an argument) more than once per
process. The internal state of the random number generator should
contain more entropy than can be provided by any seed, so calling
srand() again actually loses randomness.
Most implementations of
srand take an integer and will silently
truncate decimal numbers. This means
srand(42) will usually
produce the same results as
srand(42.1). To be safe, always pass
srand an integer.
In versions of Perl prior to 5.004 the default seed was just the
time. This isn't a particularly good seed, so many old
programs supply their own seed value (often
time ^ $$
($$ + ($$ << 15))
), but that isn't necessary any more.
Frequently called programs (like CGI scripts) that simply use
- time ^ $$
for a seed can fall prey to the mathematical property that
- a^b == (a+1)^(b+1)
one-third of the time. So don't do that.
A typical use of the returned seed is for a test program which has too many combinations to test comprehensively in the time available to it each run. It can test a random subset each time, and should there be a failure, log the seed used for that run so that it can later be used to reproduce the same results.
rand() is not cryptographically secure. You should not rely
on it in security-sensitive situations. As of this writing, a
number of third-party CPAN modules offer random number generators
intended by their authors to be cryptographically secure,
including: Data::Entropy, Crypt::Random, Math::Random::Secure,