Perl 5 version 12.3 documentation
Pod::Man - Convert POD data to formatted *roff input
Pod::Man is a module to convert documentation in the POD format (the preferred language for documenting Perl) into *roff input using the man macro set. The resulting *roff code is suitable for display on a terminal using nroff(1), normally via man(1), or printing using troff(1). It is conventionally invoked using the driver script pod2man, but it can also be used directly.
As a derived class from Pod::Simple, Pod::Man supports the same methods and interfaces. See Pod::Simple for all the details.
new() can take options, in the form of key/value pairs that control the behavior of the parser. See below for details.
If no options are given, Pod::Man uses the name of the input file with any
stripped as the man page title, to
section 1 unless the file ended in
in which case it defaults to
section 3, to a centered title of "User Contributed Perl Documentation", to
a centered footer of the Perl version it is run with, and to a left-hand
footer of the modification date of its input (or the current date if given
Pod::Man assumes that your *roff formatters have a fixed-width font named
. If yours is called something else (like
), use the
option to specify it. This generally only matters for troff output for
printing. Similarly, you can set the fonts used for bold, italic, and
bold italic fixed-width output.
Besides the obvious pod conversions, Pod::Man also takes care of
formatting func(), func(3), and simple variable references like $foo or
@bar so you don't have to use code escapes for them; complex expressions
will still need to be escaped, though. It also
translates dashes that aren't used as hyphens into en dashes, makes long
dashes--like this--into proper em dashes, fixes "paired quotes," makes C++
look right, puts a little space between double underscores, makes ALLCAPS
a teeny bit smaller in troff, and escapes stuff that *roff treats as
special so that you don't have to.
The recognized options to new() are as follows. All options take a single argument.
Sets the centered page header to use instead of "User Contributed Perl Documentation".
Sets the left-hand footer. By default, the modification date of the input file will be used, or the current date if stat() can't find that file (the case if the input is from
STDIN), and the date will be formatted as
The fixed-width font to use for verbatim text and code. Defaults to
CW. Some systems may want
CRinstead. Only matters for troff output.
Bold version of the fixed-width font. Defaults to
CB. Only matters for troff output.
Italic version of the fixed-width font (actually, something of a misnomer, since most fixed-width fonts only have an oblique version, not an italic version). Defaults to
CI. Only matters for troff output.
Bold italic (probably actually oblique) version of the fixed-width font. Pod::Man doesn't assume you have this, and defaults to
CB. Some systems (such as Solaris) have this font available as
CX. Only matters for troff output.
Set the name of the manual page. Without this option, the manual name is set to the uppercased base name of the file being converted unless the manual section is 3, in which case the path is parsed to see if it is a Perl module path. If it is, a path like
.../lib/Pod/Man.pmis converted into a name like
Pod::Man. This option, if given, overrides any automatic determination of the name.
Sets the quote marks used to surround C<> text. If the value is a single character, it is used as both the left and right quote; if it is two characters, the first character is used as the left quote and the second as the right quoted; and if it is four characters, the first two are used as the left quote and the second two as the right quote.
This may also be set to the special value
none, in which case no quote marks are added around C<> text (but the font is still changed for troff output).
Set the centered footer. By default, this is the version of Perl you run Pod::Man under. Note that some system an macro sets assume that the centered footer will be a modification date and will prepend something like "Last modified: "; if this is the case, you may want to set
releaseto the last modified date and
dateto the version number.
Set the section for the
.THmacro. The standard section numbering convention is to use 1 for user commands, 2 for system calls, 3 for functions, 4 for devices, 5 for file formats, 6 for games, 7 for miscellaneous information, and 8 for administrator commands. There is a lot of variation here, however; some systems (like Solaris) use 4 for file formats, 5 for miscellaneous information, and 7 for devices. Still others use 1m instead of 8, or some mix of both. About the only section numbers that are reliably consistent are 1, 2, and 3.
By default, section 1 will be used unless the file ends in
.pmin which case section 3 will be selected.
Send error messages about invalid POD to standard error instead of appending a POD ERRORS section to the generated *roff output.
By default, Pod::Man produces the most conservative possible *roff output to try to ensure that it will work with as many different *roff implementations as possible. Many *roff implementations cannot handle non-ASCII characters, so this means all non-ASCII characters are converted either to a *roff escape sequence that tries to create a properly accented character (at least for troff output) or to
If this option is set, Pod::Man will instead output UTF-8. If your *roff implementation can handle it, this is the best output format to use and avoids corruption of documents containing non-ASCII characters. However, be warned that *roff source with literal UTF-8 characters is not supported by many implementations and may even result in segfaults and other bad behavior.
Be aware that, when using this option, the input encoding of your POD source must be properly declared unless it is US-ASCII or Latin-1. POD input without an
=encodingcommand will be assumed to be in Latin-1, and if it's actually in UTF-8, the output will be double-encoded. See perlpod(1) for more information on the
The standard Pod::Simple method parse_file() takes one argument naming the
POD file to read from. By default, the output is sent to
this can be changed with the output_fd() method.
The standard Pod::Simple method parse_from_file() takes up to two arguments, the first being the input file to read POD from and the second being the file to write the formatted output to.
You can also call parse_lines() to parse an array of lines or parse_string_document() to parse a document already in memory. To put the output into a string instead of a file handle, call the output_string() method. See Pod::Simple for the specific details.
- roff font should be 1 or 2 chars, not "%s"
(F) You specified a *roff font (using
fixedbold, etc.) that wasn't either one or two characters. Pod::Man doesn't support *roff fonts longer than two characters, although some *roff extensions do (the canonical versions of nroff and troff don't either).
- Invalid quote specification "%s"
(F) The quote specification given (the quotes option to the constructor) was invalid. A quote specification must be one, two, or four characters long.
Encoding handling assumes that PerlIO is available and does not work
properly if it isn't. The
option is therefore not supported
unless Perl is built with PerlIO support.
There is currently no way to turn off the guesswork that tries to format unmarked text appropriately, and sometimes it isn't wanted (particularly when using POD to document something other than Perl). Most of the work toward fixing this has now been done, however, and all that's still needed is a user interface.
The NAME section should be recognized specially and index entries emitted for everything in that section. This would have to be deferred until the next section, since extraneous things in NAME tends to confuse various man page processors. Currently, no index entries are emitted for anything in NAME.
Pod::Man doesn't handle font names longer than two characters. Neither do most troff implementations, but GNU troff does as an extension. It would be nice to support as an option for those who want to use it.
The preamble added to each output file is rather verbose, and most of it is only necessary in the presence of non-ASCII characters. It would ideally be nice if all of those definitions were only output if needed, perhaps on the fly as the characters are used.
Pod::Man is excessively slow.
If Pod::Man is given the
option, the encoding of its output file
handle will be forced to UTF-8 if possible, overriding any existing
encoding. This will be done even if the file handle is not created by
Pod::Man and was passed in from outside. This maintains consistency
regardless of PERL_UNICODE and other settings.
The handling of hyphens and em dashes is somewhat fragile, and one may get the wrong one under some circumstances. This should only matter for troff output.
When and whether to use small caps is somewhat tricky, and Pod::Man doesn't necessarily get it right.
Converting neutral double quotes to properly matched double quotes doesn't work unless there are no formatting codes between the quote marks. This only matters for troff output.
Russ Allbery <firstname.lastname@example.org>, based very heavily on the original pod2man by Tom Christiansen <email@example.com>. The modifications to work with Pod::Simple instead of Pod::Parser were originally contributed by Sean Burke (but I've since hacked them beyond recognition and all bugs are mine).
COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
Copyright 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Russ Allbery <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
This program is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.
Pod::Simple, perlpod(1), pod2man(1), nroff(1), troff(1), man(1), man(7)
Ossanna, Joseph F., and Brian W. Kernighan. "Troff User's Manual," Computing Science Technical Report No. 54, AT&T Bell Laboratories. This is the best documentation of standard nroff and troff. At the time of this writing, it's available at http://www.cs.bell-labs.com/cm/cs/cstr.html.
The man page documenting the man macro set may be man(5) instead of man(7) on your system. Also, please see pod2man(1) for extensive documentation on writing manual pages if you've not done it before and aren't familiar with the conventions.
The current version of this module is always available from its web site at http://www.eyrie.org/~eagle/software/podlators/. It is also part of the Perl core distribution as of 5.6.0.