=head1 NAME
perlnumber - semantics of numbers and numeric operations in Perl
=head1 SYNOPSIS
$n = 1234; # decimal integer
$n = 0b1110011; # binary integer
$n = 01234; # octal integer
$n = 0x1234; # hexadecimal integer
$n = 12.34e-56; # exponential notation
$n = "-12.34e56"; # number specified as a string
$n = "1234"; # number specified as a string
$n = v49.50.51.52; # number specified as a string, which in
# turn is specified in terms of numbers :-)
=head1 DESCRIPTION
This document describes how Perl internally handles numeric values.
Perl's operator overloading facility is completely ignored here. Operator
overloading allows user-defined behaviors for numbers, such as operations
over arbitrarily large integers, floating points numbers with arbitrary
precision, operations over "exotic" numbers such as modular arithmetic or
p-adic arithmetic, and so on. See L for details.
=head1 Storing numbers
Perl can internally represent numbers in 3 different ways: as native
integers, as native floating point numbers, and as decimal strings.
Decimal strings may have an exponential notation part, as in C<"12.34e-56">.
I here means "a format supported by the C compiler which was used
to build perl".
The term "native" does not mean quite as much when we talk about native
integers, as it does when native floating point numbers are involved.
The only implication of the term "native" on integers is that the limits for
the maximal and the minimal supported true integral quantities are close to
powers of 2. However, "native" floats have a most fundamental
restriction: they may represent only those numbers which have a relatively
"short" representation when converted to a binary fraction. For example,
0.9 cannot be respresented by a native float, since the binary fraction
for 0.9 is infinite:
binary0.1110011001100...
with the sequence C<1100> repeating again and again. In addition to this
limitation, the exponent of the binary number is also restricted when it
is represented as a floating point number. On typical hardware, floating
point values can store numbers with up to 53 binary digits, and with binary
exponents between -1024 and 1024. In decimal representation this is close
to 16 decimal digits and decimal exponents in the range of -304..304.
The upshot of all this is that Perl cannot store a number like
12345678901234567 as a floating point number on such architectures without
loss of information.
Similarly, decimal strings can represent only those numbers which have a
finite decimal expansion. Being strings, and thus of arbitrary length, there
is no practical limit for the exponent or number of decimal digits for these
numbers. (But realize that what we are discussing the rules for just the
I of these numbers. The fact that you can store such "large" numbers
does not mean that that the I over these numbers will use all
of the significant digits.
See L<"Numeric operators and numeric conversions"> for details.)
In fact numbers stored in the native integer format may be stored either
in the signed native form, or in the unsigned native form. Thus the limits
for Perl numbers stored as native integers would typically be -2**31..2**32-1,
with appropriate modifications in the case of 64-bit integers. Again, this
does not mean that Perl can do operations only over integers in this range:
it is possible to store many more integers in floating point format.
Summing up, Perl numeric values can store only those numbers which have
a finite decimal expansion or a "short" binary expansion.
=head1 Numeric operators and numeric conversions
As mentioned earlier, Perl can store a number in any one of three formats,
but most operators typically understand only one of those formats. When
a numeric value is passed as an argument to such an operator, it will be
converted to the format understood by the operator.
Six such conversions are possible:
native integer --> native floating point (*)
native integer --> decimal string
native floating_point --> native integer (*)
native floating_point --> decimal string (*)
decimal string --> native integer
decimal string --> native floating point (*)
These conversions are governed by the following general rules:
=over
=item *
If the source number can be represented in the target form, that
representation is used.
=item *
If the source number is outside of the limits representable in the target form,
a representation of the closest limit is used. (I)
=item *
If the source number is between two numbers representable in the target form,
a representation of one of these numbers is used. (I)
=item *
In C<< native floating point --> native integer >> conversions the magnitude
of the result is less than or equal to the magnitude of the source.
(I<"Rounding to zero".>)
=item *
If the C<< decimal string --> native integer >> conversion cannot be done
without loss of information, the result is compatible with the conversion
sequence C<< decimal_string --> native_floating_point --> native_integer >>.
In particular, rounding is strongly biased to 0, though a number like
C<"0.99999999999999999999"> has a chance of being rounded to 1.
=back
B: The conversions marked with C<(*)> above involve steps
performed by the C compiler. In particular, bugs/features of the compiler
used may lead to breakage of some of the above rules.
=head1 Flavors of Perl numeric operations
Perl operations which take a numeric argument treat that argument in one
of four different ways: they may force it to one of the integer/floating/
string formats, or they may behave differently depending on the format of
the operand. Forcing a numeric value to a particular format does not
change the number stored in the value.
All the operators which need an argument in the integer format treat the
argument as in modular arithmetic, e.g., C on a 32-bit
architecture. C therefore provides the same result as
C.
=over
=item Arithmetic operators except, C
force the argument into the floating point format.
=item Arithmetic operators except, C