Returns a string formatted by the usual
printf() conventions of the C library function
sprintf(). See sprintf(3) or printf(3) on your system for an explanation of the general principles.
Perl does its own
sprintf() formatting -- it emulates the C function
sprintf(), but it doesn't use it (except for floating-point numbers, and even then only the standard modifiers are allowed). As a result, any non-standard extensions in your local
sprintf() are not available from Perl.
sprintf() permits the following universally-known conversions:
%% a percent sign %c a character with the given number %s a string %d a signed integer, in decimal %u an unsigned integer, in decimal %o an unsigned integer, in octal %x an unsigned integer, in hexadecimal %e a floating-point number, in scientific notation %f a floating-point number, in fixed decimal notation %g a floating-point number, in %e or %f notation
In addition, Perl permits the following widely-supported conversions:
%X like %x, but using upper-case letters %E like %e, but using an upper-case "E" %G like %g, but with an upper-case "E" (if applicable) %p a pointer (outputs the Perl value's address in hexadecimal) %n special: *stores* the number of characters output so far into the next variable in the parameter list
Finally, for backward (and we do mean "backward") compatibility, Perl permits these unnecessary but widely-supported conversions:
%i a synonym for %d %D a synonym for %ld %U a synonym for %lu %O a synonym for %lo %F a synonym for %f
Perl permits the following universally-known flags between the
% and the conversion letter:
space prefix positive number with a space + prefix positive number with a plus sign - left-justify within the field 0 use zeros, not spaces, to right-justify # prefix non-zero octal with "0", non-zero hex with "0x" number minimum field width .number "precision": digits after decimal point for floating-point, max length for string, minimum length for integer l interpret integer as C type "long" or "unsigned long" h interpret integer as C type "short" or "unsigned short"
There is also one Perl-specific flag:
V interpret integer as Perl's standard integer type
Where a number would appear in the flags, an asterisk ("
*") may be used instead, in which case Perl uses the next item in the parameter list as the given number (that is, as the field width or precision). If a field width obtained through "
*" is negative, it has the same effect as the "
-" flag: left-justification.
use locale is in effect, the character used for the decimal point in formatted real numbers is affected by the LC_NUMERIC locale. See perllocale.