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CONTENTS

NAME

perltoc - perl documentation table of contents

DESCRIPTION

This page provides a brief table of contents for the rest of the Perl documentation set. It is meant to be scanned quickly or grepped through to locate the proper section you're looking for.

BASIC DOCUMENTATION

perl - The Perl language interpreter

SYNOPSIS
GETTING HELP
Overview
Tutorials
Reference Manual
Internals and C Language Interface
Miscellaneous
Language-Specific
Platform-Specific
DESCRIPTION
AVAILABILITY
ENVIRONMENT
AUTHOR
FILES
SEE ALSO
DIAGNOSTICS
BUGS
NOTES

perlintro -- a brief introduction and overview of Perl

DESCRIPTION
What is Perl?
Running Perl programs
Safety net
Basic syntax overview
Perl variable types

Scalars, Arrays, Hashes

Variable scoping
Conditional and looping constructs

if, while, for, foreach

Builtin operators and functions

Arithmetic, Numeric comparison, String comparison, Boolean logic, Miscellaneous

Files and I/O
Regular expressions

Simple matching, Simple substitution, More complex regular expressions, Parentheses for capturing, Other regexp features

Writing subroutines
OO Perl
Using Perl modules
AUTHOR

perlreftut - Mark's very short tutorial about references

DESCRIPTION
Who Needs Complicated Data Structures?
The Solution
Syntax
Making References
Using References
An Example
Arrow Rule
Solution
The Rest
Summary
Credits
Distribution Conditions

perldsc - Perl Data Structures Cookbook

DESCRIPTION

arrays of arrays, hashes of arrays, arrays of hashes, hashes of hashes, more elaborate constructs

REFERENCES
COMMON MISTAKES
CAVEAT ON PRECEDENCE
WHY YOU SHOULD ALWAYS use strict
DEBUGGING
CODE EXAMPLES
ARRAYS OF ARRAYS
Declaration of an ARRAY OF ARRAYS
Generation of an ARRAY OF ARRAYS
Access and Printing of an ARRAY OF ARRAYS
HASHES OF ARRAYS
Declaration of a HASH OF ARRAYS
Generation of a HASH OF ARRAYS
Access and Printing of a HASH OF ARRAYS
ARRAYS OF HASHES
Declaration of an ARRAY OF HASHES
Generation of an ARRAY OF HASHES
Access and Printing of an ARRAY OF HASHES
HASHES OF HASHES
Declaration of a HASH OF HASHES
Generation of a HASH OF HASHES
Access and Printing of a HASH OF HASHES
MORE ELABORATE RECORDS
Declaration of MORE ELABORATE RECORDS
Declaration of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS
Generation of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS
Database Ties
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

perllol - Manipulating Arrays of Arrays in Perl

DESCRIPTION
Declaration and Access of Arrays of Arrays
Growing Your Own
Access and Printing
Slices
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

perlrequick - Perl regular expressions quick start

DESCRIPTION
The Guide
Simple word matching
Using character classes
Matching this or that
Grouping things and hierarchical matching
Extracting matches
Matching repetitions
More matching
Search and replace
The split operator
BUGS
SEE ALSO
Acknowledgments

perlretut - Perl regular expressions tutorial

DESCRIPTION
Part 1: The basics
Simple word matching
Using character classes
Matching this or that
Grouping things and hierarchical matching
Extracting matches
Backreferences
Relative backreferences
Named backreferences
Alternative capture group numbering
Position information
Non-capturing groupings
Matching repetitions
Possessive quantifiers
Building a regexp
Using regular expressions in Perl
Part 2: Power tools
More on characters, strings, and character classes
Compiling and saving regular expressions
Composing regular expressions at runtime
Embedding comments and modifiers in a regular expression
Looking ahead and looking behind
Using independent subexpressions to prevent backtracking
Conditional expressions
Defining named patterns
Recursive patterns
A bit of magic: executing Perl code in a regular expression
Backtracking control verbs
Pragmas and debugging
BUGS
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
Acknowledgments

perlboot - Beginner's Object-Oriented Tutorial

DESCRIPTION
If we could talk to the animals...
Introducing the method invocation arrow
Invoking a barnyard
The extra parameter of method invocation
Calling a second method to simplify things
Inheriting the windpipes
A few notes about @ISA
Overriding the methods
Starting the search from a different place
The SUPER way of doing things
Let's review...
A horse is a horse, of course of course, or is it?
Invoking an instance method
Accessing the instance data
How to build a horse
Inheriting the constructor
Making a method work with either classes or instances
Adding parameters to a method
More interesting instances
A horse of a different color
Summary
SEE ALSO

perltoot - Tom's object-oriented tutorial for perl

DESCRIPTION
Creating a Class
Object Representation
Class Interface
Constructors and Instance Methods
Planning for the Future: Better Constructors
Destructors
Other Object Methods
Class Data
Accessing Class Data
Debugging Methods
Class Destructors
Documenting the Interface
Aggregation
Inheritance
Overridden Methods
Multiple Inheritance
UNIVERSAL: The Root of All Objects
Deeper UNIVERSAL details
Alternate Object Representations
Arrays as Objects
Closures as Objects
AUTOLOAD: Proxy Methods
Autoloaded Data Methods
Inherited Autoloaded Data Methods
Metaclassical Tools
Class::Struct
Data Members as Variables
NOTES
Object Terminology
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
COPYRIGHT
Acknowledgments

perltooc - Tom's OO Tutorial for Class Data in Perl

DESCRIPTION
Class Data in a Can
Class Data as Package Variables
Putting All Your Eggs in One Basket
Inheritance Concerns
The Eponymous Meta-Object
Indirect References to Class Data
Monadic Classes
Translucent Attributes
Class Data as Lexical Variables
Privacy and Responsibility
File-Scoped Lexicals
More Inheritance Concerns
Locking the Door and Throwing Away the Key
Translucency Revisited
NOTES
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
HISTORY

perlbot - Bag'o Object Tricks (the BOT)

DESCRIPTION
OO SCALING TIPS
INSTANCE VARIABLES
SCALAR INSTANCE VARIABLES
INSTANCE VARIABLE INHERITANCE
OBJECT RELATIONSHIPS
OVERRIDING SUPERCLASS METHODS
USING RELATIONSHIP WITH SDBM
THINKING OF CODE REUSE
CLASS CONTEXT AND THE OBJECT
INHERITING A CONSTRUCTOR
DELEGATION
SEE ALSO

perlperf - Perl Performance and Optimization Techniques

DESCRIPTION
OVERVIEW
ONE STEP SIDEWAYS
ONE STEP FORWARD
ANOTHER STEP SIDEWAYS
GENERAL GUIDELINES
BENCHMARKS
Assigning and Dereferencing Variables.
Search and replace or tr
PROFILING TOOLS
Devel::DProf
Devel::Profiler
Devel::SmallProf
Devel::FastProf
Devel::NYTProf
SORTING

Elapsed Real Time, User CPU Time, System CPU Time

LOGGING
Logging if DEBUG (constant)
POSTSCRIPT
SEE ALSO
PERLDOCS
MAN PAGES
MODULES
URLS
AUTHOR

perlstyle - Perl style guide

DESCRIPTION

perlcheat - Perl 5 Cheat Sheet

DESCRIPTION
The sheet
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO

perltrap - Perl traps for the unwary

DESCRIPTION
Awk Traps
C/C++ Traps
Sed Traps
Shell Traps
Perl Traps
Perl4 to Perl5 Traps

Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps, Parsing Traps, Numerical Traps, General data type traps, Context Traps - scalar, list contexts, Precedence Traps, General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc, Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps, OS Traps, DBM Traps, Unclassified Traps

Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps

Symbols starting with "_" no longer forced into main, Double-colon valid package separator in variable name, 2nd and 3rd args to splice() are now in scalar context, Can't do goto into a block that is optimized away, Can't use whitespace as variable name or quote delimiter, while/if BLOCK BLOCK gone, ** binds tighter than unary minus, foreach changed when iterating over a list, split with no args behavior changed, -e behavior fixed, push returns number of elements in resulting list, Some error messages differ, split() honors subroutine args, Bugs removed

Parsing Traps

Space between . and = triggers syntax error, Better parsing in perl 5, Function parsing, String interpolation of $#array differs, Perl guesses on map, grep followed by { if it starts BLOCK or hash ref

Numerical Traps

Formatted output and significant digits, Auto-increment operator over signed int limit deleted, Assignment of return values from numeric equality tests doesn't work, Bitwise string ops

General data type traps

Negative array subscripts now count from the end of array, Setting $#array lower now discards array elements, Hashes get defined before use, Glob assignment from localized variable to variable, Assigning undef to glob, Changes in unary negation (of strings), Modifying of constants prohibited, defined $var behavior changed, Variable Suicide

Context Traps - scalar, list contexts

Elements of argument lists for formats evaluated in list context, caller() returns false value in scalar context if no caller present, Comma operator in scalar context gives scalar context to args, sprintf() prototyped as ($;@)

Precedence Traps

LHS vs. RHS of any assignment operator, Semantic errors introduced due to precedence, Precedence of assignment operators same as the precedence of assignment, open requires parentheses around filehandle, $: precedence over $:: gone, Precedence of file test operators documented, keys, each, values are regular named unary operators

General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc.

s'$lhs'$rhs' interpolates on either side, m//g attaches its state to the searched string, m//o used within an anonymous sub, $+ isn't set to whole match, Substitution now returns null string if it fails, s`lhs`rhs` is now a normal substitution, Stricter parsing of variables in regular expressions, m?x? matches only once, Failed matches don't reset the match variables

Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps

Barewords that used to look like strings look like subroutine calls, Reverse is no longer allowed as the name of a sort subroutine, warn() won't let you specify a filehandle

OS Traps

SysV resets signal handler correctly, SysV seek() appends correctly

Interpolation Traps

@ always interpolates an array in double-quotish strings, Double-quoted strings may no longer end with an unescaped $, Arbitrary expressions are evaluated inside braces within double quotes, $$x now tries to dereference $x, Creation of hashes on the fly with eval "EXPR" requires protection, Bugs in earlier perl versions, Array and hash brackets during interpolation, Interpolation of \$$foo{bar}, qq() string passed to eval will not find string terminator

DBM Traps

Perl5 must have been linked with same dbm/ndbm as the default for dbmopen(), DBM exceeding limit on the key/value size will cause perl5 to exit immediately

Unclassified Traps

require/do trap using returned value, split on empty string with LIMIT specified

perldebtut - Perl debugging tutorial

DESCRIPTION
use strict
Looking at data and -w and v
help
Stepping through code
Placeholder for a, w, t, T
REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
OUTPUT TIPS
CGI
GUIs
SUMMARY
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR
CONTRIBUTORS

perlfaq - frequently asked questions about Perl

DESCRIPTION
Where to get the perlfaq
How to contribute to the perlfaq
What will happen if you mail your Perl programming problems to the authors?
CREDITS
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
Table of Contents

perlfaq - this document, perlfaq1 - General Questions About Perl, perlfaq2 - Obtaining and Learning about Perl, perlfaq3 - Programming Tools, perlfaq4 - Data Manipulation, perlfaq5 - Files and Formats, perlfaq6 - Regular Expressions, perlfaq7 - General Perl Language Issues, perlfaq8 - System Interaction, perlfaq9 - Networking

The Questions
perlfaq1: General Questions About Perl
perlfaq2: Obtaining and Learning about Perl
perlfaq3: Programming Tools
perlfaq4: Data Manipulation
perlfaq5: Files and Formats
perlfaq6: Regular Expressions
perlfaq7: General Perl Language Issues
perlfaq8: System Interaction
perlfaq9: Networking

perlfaq1 - General Questions About Perl

DESCRIPTION
What is Perl?
Who supports Perl? Who develops it? Why is it free?
Which version of Perl should I use?
What are Perl 4, Perl 5, or Perl 6?
What was Ponie?
What is Perl 6?
How stable is Perl?
Is Perl difficult to learn?
How does Perl compare with other languages like Java, Python, REXX, Scheme, or Tcl?
Can I do [task] in Perl?
When shouldn't I program in Perl?
What's the difference between "perl" and "Perl"?
Is it a Perl program or a Perl script?
What is a JAPH?
Where can I get a list of Larry Wall witticisms?
How can I convince others to use Perl?

http://perltraining.com.au/whyperl.html, http://www.perl.org/advocacy/whyperl.html

AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq2 - Obtaining and Learning about Perl

DESCRIPTION
What machines support perl? Where do I get it?
How can I get a binary version of perl?
I don't have a C compiler. How can I build my own Perl interpreter?
I copied the perl binary from one machine to another, but scripts don't work.
I grabbed the sources and tried to compile but gdbm/dynamic loading/malloc/linking/... failed. How do I make it work?
What modules and extensions are available for Perl? What is CPAN? What does CPAN/src/... mean?
Is there an ISO or ANSI certified version of Perl?
Where can I get information on Perl?
What are the Perl newsgroups on Usenet? Where do I post questions?
Where should I post source code?
Perl Books

References, Tutorials, Task-Oriented, Special Topics

Which magazines have Perl content?
What mailing lists are there for Perl?
Where are the archives for comp.lang.perl.misc?
Where can I buy a commercial version of perl?
Where do I send bug reports?
What is perl.com? Perl Mongers? pm.org? perl.org? cpan.org?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq3 - Programming Tools

DESCRIPTION
How do I do (anything)?
How can I use Perl interactively?
Is there a Perl shell?
How do I find which modules are installed on my system?
How do I debug my Perl programs?
How do I profile my Perl programs?
How do I cross-reference my Perl programs?
Is there a pretty-printer (formatter) for Perl?
Is there a ctags for Perl?
Is there an IDE or Windows Perl Editor?

Eclipse, Enginsite, Komodo, Notepad++, Open Perl IDE, OptiPerl, Padre, PerlBuilder, visiPerl+, Visual Perl, Zeus, GNU Emacs, MicroEMACS, XEmacs, Jed, Elvis, Vile, Vim, Codewright, MultiEdit, SlickEdit, ConTEXT, Bash, Ksh, Tcsh, Zsh, Affrus, Alpha, BBEdit and BBEdit Lite

Where can I get Perl macros for vi?
Where can I get perl-mode for emacs?
How can I use curses with Perl?
How can I write a GUI (X, Tk, Gtk, etc.) in Perl?

Tk, Wx, Gtk and Gtk2, Win32::GUI, CamelBones, Qt, Athena

How can I make my Perl program run faster?
How can I make my Perl program take less memory?

Don't slurp!, Use map and grep selectively, Avoid unnecessary quotes and stringification, Pass by reference, Tie large variables to disk

Is it safe to return a reference to local or lexical data?
How can I free an array or hash so my program shrinks?
How can I make my CGI script more efficient?
How can I hide the source for my Perl program?
How can I compile my Perl program into byte code or C?
How can I get #!perl to work on [MS-DOS,NT,...]?
Can I write useful Perl programs on the command line?
Why don't Perl one-liners work on my DOS/Mac/VMS system?
Where can I learn about CGI or Web programming in Perl?
Where can I learn about object-oriented Perl programming?
Where can I learn about linking C with Perl?
I've read perlembed, perlguts, etc., but I can't embed perl in my C program; what am I doing wrong?
When I tried to run my script, I got this message. What does it mean?
What's MakeMaker?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq4 - Data Manipulation

DESCRIPTION
Data: Numbers
Why am I getting long decimals (eg, 19.9499999999999) instead of the numbers I should be getting (eg, 19.95)?
Why is int() broken?
Why isn't my octal data interpreted correctly?
Does Perl have a round() function? What about ceil() and floor()? Trig functions?
How do I convert between numeric representations/bases/radixes?

How do I convert hexadecimal into decimal, How do I convert from decimal to hexadecimal, How do I convert from octal to decimal, How do I convert from decimal to octal, How do I convert from binary to decimal, How do I convert from decimal to binary

Why doesn't & work the way I want it to?
How do I multiply matrices?
How do I perform an operation on a series of integers?
How can I output Roman numerals?
Why aren't my random numbers random?
How do I get a random number between X and Y?
Data: Dates
How do I find the day or week of the year?
How do I find the current century or millennium?
How can I compare two dates and find the difference?
How can I take a string and turn it into epoch seconds?
How can I find the Julian Day?
How do I find yesterday's date?
Does Perl have a Year 2000 or 2038 problem? Is Perl Y2K compliant?
Data: Strings
How do I validate input?
How do I unescape a string?
How do I remove consecutive pairs of characters?
How do I expand function calls in a string?
How do I find matching/nesting anything?
How do I reverse a string?
How do I expand tabs in a string?
How do I reformat a paragraph?
How can I access or change N characters of a string?
How do I change the Nth occurrence of something?
How can I count the number of occurrences of a substring within a string?
How do I capitalize all the words on one line?
How can I split a [character] delimited string except when inside [character]?
How do I strip blank space from the beginning/end of a string?
How do I pad a string with blanks or pad a number with zeroes?
How do I extract selected columns from a string?
How do I find the soundex value of a string?
How can I expand variables in text strings?
What's wrong with always quoting "$vars"?
Why don't my <<HERE documents work?

There must be no space after the << part, There (probably) should be a semicolon at the end, You can't (easily) have any space in front of the tag

Data: Arrays
What is the difference between a list and an array?
What is the difference between $array[1] and @array[1]?
How can I remove duplicate elements from a list or array?
How can I tell whether a certain element is contained in a list or array?
How do I compute the difference of two arrays? How do I compute the intersection of two arrays?
How do I test whether two arrays or hashes are equal?
How do I find the first array element for which a condition is true?
How do I handle linked lists?
How do I handle circular lists?
How do I shuffle an array randomly?
How do I process/modify each element of an array?
How do I select a random element from an array?
How do I permute N elements of a list?
How do I sort an array by (anything)?
How do I manipulate arrays of bits?
Why does defined() return true on empty arrays and hashes?
Data: Hashes (Associative Arrays)
How do I process an entire hash?
How do I merge two hashes?
What happens if I add or remove keys from a hash while iterating over it?
How do I look up a hash element by value?
How can I know how many entries are in a hash?
How do I sort a hash (optionally by value instead of key)?
How can I always keep my hash sorted?
What's the difference between "delete" and "undef" with hashes?
Why don't my tied hashes make the defined/exists distinction?
How do I reset an each() operation part-way through?
How can I get the unique keys from two hashes?
How can I store a multidimensional array in a DBM file?
How can I make my hash remember the order I put elements into it?
Why does passing a subroutine an undefined element in a hash create it?
How can I make the Perl equivalent of a C structure/C++ class/hash or array of hashes or arrays?
How can I use a reference as a hash key?
Data: Misc
How do I handle binary data correctly?
How do I determine whether a scalar is a number/whole/integer/float?
How do I keep persistent data across program calls?
How do I print out or copy a recursive data structure?
How do I define methods for every class/object?
How do I verify a credit card checksum?
How do I pack arrays of doubles or floats for XS code?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq5 - Files and Formats

DESCRIPTION
How do I flush/unbuffer an output filehandle? Why must I do this?
How do I change, delete, or insert a line in a file, or append to the beginning of a file?
How do I count the number of lines in a file?
How do I delete the last N lines from a file?
How can I use Perl's -i option from within a program?
How can I copy a file?
How do I make a temporary file name?
How can I manipulate fixed-record-length files?
How can I make a filehandle local to a subroutine? How do I pass filehandles between subroutines? How do I make an array of filehandles?
How can I use a filehandle indirectly?
How can I write() into a string?
How can I open a filehandle to a string?
How can I output my numbers with commas added?
How can I translate tildes (~) in a filename?
How come when I open a file read-write it wipes it out?
Why do I sometimes get an "Argument list too long" when I use <*>?
Is there a leak/bug in glob()?
How can I open a file with a leading ">" or trailing blanks?
How can I reliably rename a file?
How can I lock a file?
Why can't I just open(FH, ">file.lock")?
I still don't get locking. I just want to increment the number in the file. How can I do this?
All I want to do is append a small amount of text to the end of a file. Do I still have to use locking?
How do I randomly update a binary file?
How do I get a file's timestamp in perl?
How do I set a file's timestamp in perl?
How do I print to more than one file at once?
How can I read in an entire file all at once?
How can I read in a file by paragraphs?
How can I read a single character from a file? From the keyboard?
How can I tell whether there's a character waiting on a filehandle?
How do I do a tail -f in perl?
How do I dup() a filehandle in Perl?
How do I close a file descriptor by number?
Why can't I use "C:\temp\foo" in DOS paths? Why doesn't `C:\temp\foo.exe` work?
Why doesn't glob("*.*") get all the files?
Why does Perl let me delete read-only files? Why does -i clobber protected files? Isn't this a bug in Perl?
How do I select a random line from a file?
Why do I get weird spaces when I print an array of lines?
How do I traverse a directory tree?
How do I delete a directory tree?
How do I copy an entire directory?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq6 - Regular Expressions

DESCRIPTION
How can I hope to use regular expressions without creating illegible and unmaintainable code?

Comments Outside the Regex, Comments Inside the Regex, Different Delimiters

I'm having trouble matching over more than one line. What's wrong?
How can I pull out lines between two patterns that are themselves on different lines?
How do I match XML, HTML, or other nasty, ugly things with a regex?

Solve the balanced text problem from another question in perlfaq6, Try the recursive regex features in Perl 5.10 and later. See perlre, Try defining a grammar using Perl 5.10's (?DEFINE) feature, Break the problem down into sub-problems instead of trying to use a single regex, Convince everyone not to use XML or HTML in the first place

I put a regular expression into $/ but it didn't work. What's wrong?
How do I substitute case insensitively on the LHS while preserving case on the RHS?
How can I make \w match national character sets?
How can I match a locale-smart version of /[a-zA-Z]/?
How can I quote a variable to use in a regex?
What is /o really for?
How do I use a regular expression to strip C style comments from a file?
Can I use Perl regular expressions to match balanced text?
What does it mean that regexes are greedy? How can I get around it?
How do I process each word on each line?
How can I print out a word-frequency or line-frequency summary?
How can I do approximate matching?
How do I efficiently match many regular expressions at once?
Why don't word-boundary searches with \b work for me?
Why does using $&, $`, or $' slow my program down?
What good is \G in a regular expression?
Are Perl regexes DFAs or NFAs? Are they POSIX compliant?
What's wrong with using grep in a void context?
How can I match strings with multibyte characters?
How do I match a regular expression that's in a variable? ,
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq7 - General Perl Language Issues

DESCRIPTION
Can I get a BNF/yacc/RE for the Perl language?
What are all these $@%&* punctuation signs, and how do I know when to use them?
Do I always/never have to quote my strings or use semicolons and commas?
How do I skip some return values?
How do I temporarily block warnings?
What's an extension?
Why do Perl operators have different precedence than C operators?
How do I declare/create a structure?
How do I create a module?
How do I adopt or take over a module already on CPAN?
How do I create a class?
How can I tell if a variable is tainted?
What's a closure?
What is variable suicide and how can I prevent it?
How can I pass/return a {Function, FileHandle, Array, Hash, Method, Regex}?

Passing Variables and Functions, Passing Filehandles, Passing Regexes, Passing Methods

How do I create a static variable?
What's the difference between dynamic and lexical (static) scoping? Between local() and my()?
How can I access a dynamic variable while a similarly named lexical is in scope?
What's the difference between deep and shallow binding?
Why doesn't "my($foo) = <FILE>;" work right?
How do I redefine a builtin function, operator, or method?
What's the difference between calling a function as &foo and foo()?
How do I create a switch or case statement?
How can I catch accesses to undefined variables, functions, or methods?
Why can't a method included in this same file be found?
How can I find out my current or calling package?
How can I comment out a large block of Perl code?
How do I clear a package?
How can I use a variable as a variable name?
What does "bad interpreter" mean?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq8 - System Interaction

DESCRIPTION
How do I find out which operating system I'm running under?
How come exec() doesn't return?
How do I do fancy stuff with the keyboard/screen/mouse?

Keyboard, Screen, Mouse

How do I print something out in color?
How do I read just one key without waiting for a return key?
How do I check whether input is ready on the keyboard?
How do I clear the screen?
How do I get the screen size?
How do I ask the user for a password?
How do I read and write the serial port?

lockfiles, open mode, end of line, flushing output, non-blocking input

How do I decode encrypted password files?
How do I start a process in the background?

STDIN, STDOUT, and STDERR are shared, Signals, Zombies

How do I trap control characters/signals?
How do I modify the shadow password file on a Unix system?
How do I set the time and date?
How can I sleep() or alarm() for under a second?
How can I measure time under a second?
How can I do an atexit() or setjmp()/longjmp()? (Exception handling)
Why doesn't my sockets program work under System V (Solaris)? What does the error message "Protocol not supported" mean?
How can I call my system's unique C functions from Perl?
Where do I get the include files to do ioctl() or syscall()?
Why do setuid perl scripts complain about kernel problems?
How can I open a pipe both to and from a command?
Why can't I get the output of a command with system()?
How can I capture STDERR from an external command?
Why doesn't open() return an error when a pipe open fails?
What's wrong with using backticks in a void context?
How can I call backticks without shell processing?
Why can't my script read from STDIN after I gave it EOF (^D on Unix, ^Z on MS-DOS)?
How can I convert my shell script to perl?
Can I use perl to run a telnet or ftp session?
How can I write expect in Perl?
Is there a way to hide perl's command line from programs such as "ps"?
I {changed directory, modified my environment} in a perl script. How come the change disappeared when I exited the script? How do I get my changes to be visible?

Unix

How do I close a process's filehandle without waiting for it to complete?
How do I fork a daemon process?
How do I find out if I'm running interactively or not?
How do I timeout a slow event?
How do I set CPU limits?
How do I avoid zombies on a Unix system?
How do I use an SQL database?
How do I make a system() exit on control-C?
How do I open a file without blocking?
How do I tell the difference between errors from the shell and perl?
How do I install a module from CPAN?
What's the difference between require and use?
How do I keep my own module/library directory?
How do I add the directory my program lives in to the module/library search path?
How do I add a directory to my include path (@INC) at runtime?

the PERLLIB environment variable, the PERL5LIB environment variable, the perl -Idir command line flag, the use lib pragma:

What is socket.ph and where do I get it?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq9 - Networking

DESCRIPTION
What is the correct form of response from a CGI script?
My CGI script runs from the command line but not the browser. (500 Server Error)
How can I get better error messages from a CGI program?
How do I remove HTML from a string?
How do I extract URLs?
How do I download a file from the user's machine? How do I open a file on another machine?
How do I make an HTML pop-up menu with Perl?
How do I fetch an HTML file?
How do I automate an HTML form submission?
How do I decode or create those %-encodings on the web?
How do I redirect to another page?
How do I put a password on my web pages?
How do I edit my .htpasswd and .htgroup files with Perl?
How do I make sure users can't enter values into a form that cause my CGI script to do bad things?
How do I parse a mail header?
How do I decode a CGI form?
How do I check a valid mail address?
How do I decode a MIME/BASE64 string?
How do I return the user's mail address?
How do I send mail?
How do I use MIME to make an attachment to a mail message?
How do I read mail?
How do I find out my hostname, domainname, or IP address?
How do I fetch a news article or the active newsgroups?
How do I fetch/put an FTP file?
How can I do RPC in Perl?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlsyn - Perl syntax

DESCRIPTION
Declarations
Comments
Simple Statements
Truth and Falsehood
Statement Modifiers
Compound Statements
Loop Control
For Loops
Foreach Loops
Basic BLOCKs
Switch statements
Goto
PODs: Embedded Documentation
Plain Old Comments (Not!)

perldata - Perl data types

DESCRIPTION
Variable names
Context
Scalar values
Scalar value constructors
List value constructors
Subscripts
Slices
Typeglobs and Filehandles
SEE ALSO

perlop - Perl operators and precedence

DESCRIPTION
Operator Precedence and Associativity
Terms and List Operators (Leftward)
The Arrow Operator
Auto-increment and Auto-decrement
Exponentiation
Symbolic Unary Operators
Binding Operators
Multiplicative Operators
Additive Operators
Shift Operators
Named Unary Operators
Relational Operators
Equality Operators
Bitwise And
Bitwise Or and Exclusive Or
C-style Logical And
C-style Logical Or
C-style Logical Defined-Or
Range Operators
Conditional Operator
Assignment Operators
Comma Operator
Yada Yada Operator
List Operators (Rightward)
Logical Not
Logical And
Logical or, Defined or, and Exclusive Or
C Operators Missing From Perl

unary &, unary *, (TYPE)

Quote and Quote-like Operators
Regexp Quote-Like Operators

qr/STRING/msixpo , m/PATTERN/msixpogc , /PATTERN/msixpogc, The empty pattern //, Matching in list context, \G assertion, ?PATTERN? , s/PATTERN/REPLACEMENT/msixpogce

Quote-Like Operators

q/STRING/ , 'STRING', qq/STRING/ , "STRING", qx/STRING/ , `STRING`, qw/STRING/ , tr/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds , y/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds, <<EOF , Double Quotes, Single Quotes, Backticks

Gory details of parsing quoted constructs

Finding the end, Interpolation , <<'EOF', m'', the pattern of s''', '', q//, tr''', y''', the replacement of s''', tr///, y///, "", ``, qq//, qx//, <file*glob>, <<"EOF", the replacement of s///, RE in ?RE?, /RE/, m/RE/, s/RE/foo/,, parsing regular expressions , Optimization of regular expressions

I/O Operators
Constant Folding
No-ops
Bitwise String Operators
Integer Arithmetic
Floating-point Arithmetic
Bigger Numbers

perlsub - Perl subroutines

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Private Variables via my()
Persistent Private Variables
Temporary Values via local()
Lvalue subroutines

Lvalue subroutines are EXPERIMENTAL

Passing Symbol Table Entries (typeglobs)
When to Still Use local()
Pass by Reference
Prototypes
Constant Functions
Overriding Built-in Functions
Autoloading
Subroutine Attributes
SEE ALSO

perlfunc - Perl builtin functions

DESCRIPTION
Perl Functions by Category

Functions for SCALARs or strings , Regular expressions and pattern matching , Numeric functions , Functions for real @ARRAYs , Functions for list data , Functions for real %HASHes , Input and output functions , Functions for fixed length data or records, Functions for filehandles, files, or directories , Keywords related to the control flow of your Perl program , Keywords related to switch, Keywords related to scoping, Miscellaneous functions, Functions for processes and process groups , Keywords related to Perl modules , Keywords related to classes and object-orientation , Low-level socket functions , System V interprocess communication functions , Fetching user and group info , Fetching network info , Time-related functions , Functions new in perl5 , Functions obsoleted in perl5

Portability
Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions

-X FILEHANDLE , -X EXPR, -X DIRHANDLE, -X, abs VALUE , abs, accept NEWSOCKET,GENERICSOCKET , alarm SECONDS , alarm, atan2 Y,X , bind SOCKET,NAME , binmode FILEHANDLE, LAYER , binmode FILEHANDLE, bless REF,CLASSNAME , bless REF, break, caller EXPR , caller, chdir EXPR , chdir FILEHANDLE, chdir DIRHANDLE, chdir, chmod LIST , chomp VARIABLE , chomp( LIST ), chomp, chop VARIABLE , chop( LIST ), chop, chown LIST , chr NUMBER , chr, chroot FILENAME , chroot, close FILEHANDLE , close, closedir DIRHANDLE , connect SOCKET,NAME , continue BLOCK , continue, cos EXPR , cos, crypt PLAINTEXT,SALT , dbmclose HASH , dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MASK , defined EXPR , defined, delete EXPR , die LIST , do BLOCK , do SUBROUTINE(LIST) , do EXPR , dump LABEL , dump, each HASH , each ARRAY , eof FILEHANDLE , eof (), eof, eval EXPR , eval BLOCK, eval, exec LIST , exec PROGRAM LIST, exists EXPR , exit EXPR , exit, exp EXPR , exp, fcntl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR , fileno FILEHANDLE , flock FILEHANDLE,OPERATION , fork , format , formline PICTURE,LIST , getc FILEHANDLE , getc, getlogin , getpeername SOCKET , getpgrp PID , getppid , getpriority WHICH,WHO , getpwnam NAME , getgrnam NAME, gethostbyname NAME, getnetbyname NAME, getprotobyname NAME, getpwuid UID, getgrgid GID, getservbyname NAME,PROTO, gethostbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getnetbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getprotobynumber NUMBER, getservbyport PORT,PROTO, getpwent, getgrent, gethostent, getnetent, getprotoent, getservent, setpwent, setgrent, sethostent STAYOPEN, setnetent STAYOPEN, setprotoent STAYOPEN, setservent STAYOPEN, endpwent, endgrent, endhostent, endnetent, endprotoent, endservent, getsockname SOCKET , getsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME , glob EXPR , glob, gmtime EXPR , gmtime, goto LABEL , goto EXPR, goto &NAME, grep BLOCK LIST , grep EXPR,LIST, hex EXPR , hex, import LIST , index STR,SUBSTR,POSITION , index STR,SUBSTR, int EXPR , int, ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR , join EXPR,LIST , keys HASH , keys ARRAY, kill SIGNAL, LIST , last LABEL , last, lc EXPR , lc, lcfirst EXPR , lcfirst, length EXPR , length, link OLDFILE,NEWFILE , listen SOCKET,QUEUESIZE , local EXPR , localtime EXPR , localtime, lock THING , log EXPR , log, lstat EXPR , lstat, m//, map BLOCK LIST , map EXPR,LIST, mkdir FILENAME,MASK , mkdir FILENAME, mkdir, msgctl ID,CMD,ARG , msgget KEY,FLAGS , msgrcv ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS , msgsnd ID,MSG,FLAGS , my EXPR , my TYPE EXPR, my EXPR : ATTRS, my TYPE EXPR : ATTRS, next LABEL , next, no MODULE VERSION LIST , no MODULE VERSION, no MODULE LIST, no MODULE, no VERSION, oct EXPR , oct, open FILEHANDLE,EXPR , open FILEHANDLE,MODE,EXPR, open FILEHANDLE,MODE,EXPR,LIST, open FILEHANDLE,MODE,REFERENCE, open FILEHANDLE, opendir DIRHANDLE,EXPR , ord EXPR , ord, our EXPR , our TYPE EXPR, our EXPR : ATTRS, our TYPE EXPR : ATTRS, pack TEMPLATE,LIST , package NAMESPACE VERSION , package NAMESPACE, pipe READHANDLE,WRITEHANDLE , pop ARRAY , pop, pos SCALAR , pos, print FILEHANDLE LIST , print LIST, print, printf FILEHANDLE FORMAT, LIST , printf FORMAT, LIST, prototype FUNCTION , push ARRAY,LIST , q/STRING/, qq/STRING/, qx/STRING/, qw/STRING/, qr/STRING/, quotemeta EXPR , quotemeta, rand EXPR , rand, read FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET , read FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, readdir DIRHANDLE , readline EXPR, readline , readlink EXPR , readlink, readpipe EXPR, readpipe , recv SOCKET,SCALAR,LENGTH,FLAGS , redo LABEL , redo, ref EXPR , ref, rename OLDNAME,NEWNAME , require VERSION , require EXPR, require, reset EXPR , reset, return EXPR , return, reverse LIST , rewinddir DIRHANDLE , rindex STR,SUBSTR,POSITION , rindex STR,SUBSTR, rmdir FILENAME , rmdir, s///, say FILEHANDLE LIST , say LIST, say, scalar EXPR , seek FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE , seekdir DIRHANDLE,POS , select FILEHANDLE , select, select RBITS,WBITS,EBITS,TIMEOUT , semctl ID,SEMNUM,CMD,ARG , semget KEY,NSEMS,FLAGS , semop KEY,OPSTRING , send SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS,TO , send SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS, setpgrp PID,PGRP , setpriority WHICH,WHO,PRIORITY , setsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME,OPTVAL , shift ARRAY , shift, shmctl ID,CMD,ARG , shmget KEY,SIZE,FLAGS , shmread ID,VAR,POS,SIZE , shmwrite ID,STRING,POS,SIZE, shutdown SOCKET,HOW , sin EXPR , sin, sleep EXPR , sleep, socket SOCKET,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL , socketpair SOCKET1,SOCKET2,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL , sort SUBNAME LIST , sort BLOCK LIST, sort LIST, splice ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH,LIST , splice ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH, splice ARRAY,OFFSET, splice ARRAY, split /PATTERN/,EXPR,LIMIT , split /PATTERN/,EXPR, split /PATTERN/, split, sprintf FORMAT, LIST , format parameter index, flags, vector flag, (minimum) width, precision, or maximum width , size, order of arguments, sqrt EXPR , sqrt, srand EXPR , srand, stat FILEHANDLE , stat EXPR, stat DIRHANDLE, stat, state EXPR , state TYPE EXPR, state EXPR : ATTRS, state TYPE EXPR : ATTRS, study SCALAR , study, sub NAME BLOCK , sub NAME (PROTO) BLOCK, sub NAME : ATTRS BLOCK, sub NAME (PROTO) : ATTRS BLOCK, substr EXPR,OFFSET,LENGTH,REPLACEMENT , substr EXPR,OFFSET,LENGTH, substr EXPR,OFFSET, symlink OLDFILE,NEWFILE , syscall NUMBER, LIST , sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE , sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE,PERMS, sysread FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET , sysread FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, sysseek FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE , system LIST , system PROGRAM LIST, syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET , syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR, tell FILEHANDLE , tell, telldir DIRHANDLE , tie VARIABLE,CLASSNAME,LIST , tied VARIABLE , time , times , tr///, truncate FILEHANDLE,LENGTH , truncate EXPR,LENGTH, uc EXPR , uc, ucfirst EXPR , ucfirst, umask EXPR , umask, undef EXPR , undef, unlink LIST , unlink, unpack TEMPLATE,EXPR , unpack TEMPLATE, untie VARIABLE , unshift ARRAY,LIST , use Module VERSION LIST , use Module VERSION, use Module LIST, use Module, use VERSION, utime LIST , values HASH , values ARRAY, vec EXPR,OFFSET,BITS , wait , waitpid PID,FLAGS , wantarray , warn LIST , write FILEHANDLE , write EXPR, write, y///

perlopentut - tutorial on opening things in Perl

DESCRIPTION
Open à la shell
Simple Opens
Indirect Filehandles
Pipe Opens
The Minus File
Mixing Reads and Writes
Filters
Open à la C
Permissions à la mode
Obscure Open Tricks
Re-Opening Files (dups)
Dispelling the Dweomer
Paths as Opens
Single Argument Open
Playing with STDIN and STDOUT
Other I/O Issues
Opening Non-File Files
Opening Named Pipes
Opening Sockets
Binary Files
File Locking
IO Layers
SEE ALSO
HISTORY

perlpacktut - tutorial on pack and unpack

DESCRIPTION
The Basic Principle
Packing Text
Packing Numbers
Integers
Unpacking a Stack Frame
How to Eat an Egg on a Net
Byte-order modifiers
Floating point Numbers
Exotic Templates
Bit Strings
Uuencoding
Doing Sums
Unicode
Another Portable Binary Encoding
Template Grouping
Lengths and Widths
String Lengths
Dynamic Templates
Counting Repetitions
Intel HEX
Packing and Unpacking C Structures
The Alignment Pit
Dealing with Endian-ness
Alignment, Take 2
Alignment, Take 3
Pointers for How to Use Them
Pack Recipes
Funnies Section
Authors

perlpod - the Plain Old Documentation format

DESCRIPTION
Ordinary Paragraph
Verbatim Paragraph
Command Paragraph

=head1 Heading Text , =head2 Heading Text, =head3 Heading Text, =head4 Heading Text, =over indentlevel , =item stuff..., =back, =cut , =pod , =begin formatname , =end formatname, =for formatname text..., =encoding encodingname

Formatting Codes

I<text> -- italic text , B<text> -- bold text , C<code> -- code text , L<name> -- a hyperlink , E<escape> -- a character escape , F<filename> -- used for filenames , S<text> -- text contains non-breaking spaces , X<topic name> -- an index entry , Z<> -- a null (zero-effect) formatting code

The Intent
Embedding Pods in Perl Modules
Hints for Writing Pod

SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

perlpodspec - Plain Old Documentation: format specification and notes

DESCRIPTION
Pod Definitions
Pod Commands

"=head1", "=head2", "=head3", "=head4", "=pod", "=cut", "=over", "=item", "=back", "=begin formatname", "=begin formatname parameter", "=end formatname", "=for formatname text...", "=encoding encodingname"

Pod Formatting Codes

I<text> -- italic text, B<text> -- bold text, C<code> -- code text, F<filename> -- style for filenames, X<topic name> -- an index entry, Z<> -- a null (zero-effect) formatting code, L<name> -- a hyperlink, E<escape> -- a character escape, S<text> -- text contains non-breaking spaces

Notes on Implementing Pod Processors
About L<...> Codes

First:, Second:, Third:, Fourth:, Fifth:, Sixth:

About =over...=back Regions
About Data Paragraphs and "=begin/=end" Regions
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

perlrun - how to execute the Perl interpreter

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
#! and quoting on non-Unix systems

OS/2, MS-DOS, Win95/NT, VMS

Location of Perl
Command Switches

-0[octal/hexadecimal] , -a , -C [number/list] , -c , -d , -dt, -d:foo[=bar,baz] , -dt:foo[=bar,baz], -Dletters , -Dnumber, -e commandline , -E commandline , -f , -Fpattern , -h , -i[extension] , -Idirectory , -l[octnum] , -m[-]module , -M[-]module, -M[-]'module ...', -[mM][-]module=arg[,arg]..., -n , -p , -s , -S , -t , -T , -u , -U , -v , -V , -V:configvar, -w , -W , -X , -x , -xdirectory

ENVIRONMENT

HOME , LOGDIR , PATH , PERL5LIB , PERL5OPT , PERLIO , :bytes , :crlf , :mmap , :perlio , :pop , :raw , :stdio , :unix , :utf8 , :win32 , PERLIO_DEBUG , PERLLIB , PERL5DB , PERL5DB_THREADED , PERL5SHELL (specific to the Win32 port) , PERL_ALLOW_NON_IFS_LSP (specific to the Win32 port) , PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS , PERL_DESTRUCT_LEVEL , PERL_DL_NONLAZY , PERL_ENCODING , PERL_HASH_SEED , PERL_HASH_SEED_DEBUG , PERL_MEM_LOG , PERL_ROOT (specific to the VMS port) , PERL_SIGNALS , PERL_UNICODE , SYS$LOGIN (specific to the VMS port)

perldiag - various Perl diagnostics

DESCRIPTION
SEE ALSO

perllexwarn - Perl Lexical Warnings

DESCRIPTION
Default Warnings and Optional Warnings
What's wrong with -w and $^W
Controlling Warnings from the Command Line

-w , -W , -X

Backward Compatibility
Category Hierarchy
Fatal Warnings
Reporting Warnings from a Module
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

perldebug - Perl debugging

DESCRIPTION
The Perl Debugger
Calling the debugger

perl -d program_name, perl -d -e 0, perl -d:Ptkdb program_name, perl -dt threaded_program_name

Debugger Commands

h , h [command], h h, p expr , x [maxdepth] expr , V [pkg [vars]] , X [vars] , y [level [vars]] , T , s [expr] , n [expr] , r , <CR>, c [line|sub] , l , l min+incr, l min-max, l line, l subname, - , v [line] , . , f filename , /pattern/, ?pattern?, L [abw] , S [[!]regex] , t , t expr , b , b [line] [condition] , b subname [condition] , b postpone subname [condition] , b load filename , b compile subname , B line , B * , a [line] command , A line , A * , w expr , W expr , W * , o , o booloption ... , o anyoption? ... , o option=value ... , < ? , < [ command ] , < * , << command , > ? , > command , > * , >> command , { ? , { [ command ], { * , {{ command , ! number , ! -number , ! pattern , !! cmd , source file , H -number , q or ^D , R , |dbcmd , ||dbcmd , command, m expr , M , man [manpage]

Configurable Options

recallCommand, ShellBang , pager , tkRunning , signalLevel, warnLevel, dieLevel , AutoTrace , LineInfo , inhibit_exit , PrintRet , ornaments , frame , maxTraceLen , windowSize , arrayDepth, hashDepth , dumpDepth , compactDump, veryCompact , globPrint , DumpDBFiles , DumpPackages , DumpReused , quote, HighBit, undefPrint , UsageOnly , TTY , noTTY , ReadLine , NonStop

Debugger input/output

Prompt, Multiline commands, Stack backtrace , Line Listing Format, Frame listing

Debugging compile-time statements
Debugger Customization
Readline Support / History in the debugger
Editor Support for Debugging
The Perl Profiler
Debugging regular expressions
Debugging memory usage
SEE ALSO
BUGS

perlvar - Perl predefined variables

DESCRIPTION
Predefined Names

$ARG, $_ , $a, $b , $<digits> ($1, $2, ...) , $MATCH, $& , ${^MATCH} , $PREMATCH, $` , ${^PREMATCH} , $POSTMATCH, $' , ${^POSTMATCH} , $LAST_PAREN_MATCH, $+ , $LAST_SUBMATCH_RESULT, $^N , @LAST_MATCH_END, @+ , %LAST_PAREN_MATCH, %+ , HANDLE->input_line_number(EXPR), $INPUT_LINE_NUMBER, $NR, $. , IO::Handle->input_record_separator(EXPR), $INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $RS, $/ , HANDLE->autoflush(EXPR), $OUTPUT_AUTOFLUSH, $| , IO::Handle->output_field_separator EXPR, $OUTPUT_FIELD_SEPARATOR, $OFS, $, , IO::Handle->output_record_separator EXPR, $OUTPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $ORS, $\ , $LIST_SEPARATOR, $" , $SUBSCRIPT_SEPARATOR, $SUBSEP, $; , HANDLE->format_page_number(EXPR), $FORMAT_PAGE_NUMBER, $% , HANDLE->format_lines_per_page(EXPR), $FORMAT_LINES_PER_PAGE, $= , HANDLE->format_lines_left(EXPR), $FORMAT_LINES_LEFT, $- , @LAST_MATCH_START, @- , $` is the same as substr($var, 0, $-[0]), $& is the same as substr($var, $-[0], $+[0] - $-[0]), $' is the same as substr($var, $+[0]), $1 is the same as substr($var, $-[1], $+[1] - $-[1]), $2 is the same as substr($var, $-[2], $+[2] - $-[2]), $3 is the same as substr($var, $-[3], $+[3] - $-[3]), %- , HANDLE->format_name(EXPR), $FORMAT_NAME, $~ , HANDLE->format_top_name(EXPR), $FORMAT_TOP_NAME, $^ , IO::Handle->format_line_break_characters EXPR, $FORMAT_LINE_BREAK_CHARACTERS, $: , IO::Handle->format_formfeed EXPR, $FORMAT_FORMFEED, $^L , $ACCUMULATOR, $^A , $CHILD_ERROR, $? , ${^CHILD_ERROR_NATIVE} , ${^ENCODING} , $OS_ERROR, $ERRNO, $! , %OS_ERROR, %ERRNO, %! , $EXTENDED_OS_ERROR, $^E , $EVAL_ERROR, $@ , $PROCESS_ID, $PID, $$ , $REAL_USER_ID, $UID, $< , $EFFECTIVE_USER_ID, $EUID, $> , $REAL_GROUP_ID, $GID, $( , $EFFECTIVE_GROUP_ID, $EGID, $) , $PROGRAM_NAME, $0 , $[ , $] , $COMPILING, $^C , $DEBUGGING, $^D , ${^RE_DEBUG_FLAGS}, ${^RE_TRIE_MAXBUF}, $SYSTEM_FD_MAX, $^F , $^H, %^H, $INPLACE_EDIT, $^I , $^M , $OSNAME, $^O , ${^OPEN}, $PERLDB, $^P , 0x01, 0x02, 0x04, 0x08, 0x10, 0x20, 0x40, 0x80, 0x100, 0x200, 0x400, $LAST_REGEXP_CODE_RESULT, $^R , $EXCEPTIONS_BEING_CAUGHT, $^S , $BASETIME, $^T , ${^TAINT}, ${^UNICODE}, ${^UTF8CACHE}, ${^UTF8LOCALE}, $PERL_VERSION, $^V , $WARNING, $^W , ${^WARNING_BITS}, ${^WIN32_SLOPPY_STAT}, $EXECUTABLE_NAME, $^X , ARGV , $ARGV , @ARGV , ARGVOUT , @F , @INC , @ARG, @_ , %INC , %ENV, $ENV{expr} , %SIG, $SIG{expr}

Error Indicators
Technical Note on the Syntax of Variable Names
BUGS

perlre - Perl regular expressions

DESCRIPTION
Modifiers

m , s , i , x , p , g and c

Regular Expressions
Extended Patterns

(?#text) , (?pimsx-imsx) , (?:pattern) , (?imsx-imsx:pattern), (?|pattern) , Look-Around Assertions , (?=pattern) , (?!pattern) , (?<=pattern) \K , (?<!pattern) , (?'NAME'pattern), (?<NAME>pattern) , \k<NAME>, \k'NAME', (?{ code }) , (??{ code }) , (?PARNO) (?-PARNO) (?+PARNO) (?R) (?0) , (?&NAME) , (?(condition)yes-pattern|no-pattern) , (?(condition)yes-pattern), (1) (2) .., (<NAME>) ('NAME'), (?{ CODE }), (R), (R1) (R2) .., (R&NAME), (DEFINE), (?>pattern)

Special Backtracking Control Verbs

Verbs that take an argument, (*PRUNE) (*PRUNE:NAME) , (*SKIP) (*SKIP:NAME) , (*MARK:NAME) (*:NAME) (*MARK:NAME) (*:NAME), (*THEN) (*THEN:NAME), (*COMMIT) , Verbs without an argument, (*FAIL) (*F) , (*ACCEPT)

Backtracking
Version 8 Regular Expressions
Warning on \1 Instead of $1
Repeated Patterns Matching a Zero-length Substring
Combining RE Pieces

ST, S|T, S{REPEAT_COUNT}, S{min,max}, S{min,max}?, S?, S*, S+, S??, S*?, S+?, (?>S), (?=S), (?<=S), (?!S), (?<!S), (??{ EXPR }), (?PARNO), (?(condition)yes-pattern|no-pattern)

Creating Custom RE Engines
PCRE/Python Support

(?P<NAME>pattern), (?P=NAME), (?P>NAME)

BUGS
SEE ALSO

perlrebackslash - Perl Regular Expression Backslash Sequences and Escapes

DESCRIPTION
The backslash

[1]

All the sequences and escapes
Character Escapes

[1], [2]

Modifiers
Character classes
Referencing
Assertions

\A, \z, \Z, \G, \b, \B

Misc

\C, \K, \N, \R , \X

perlrecharclass - Perl Regular Expression Character Classes

DESCRIPTION
The dot
Backslashed sequences

[1]

Bracketed Character Classes

[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]

Locale, EBCDIC, Unicode and UTF-8

perlreref - Perl Regular Expressions Reference

DESCRIPTION
OPERATORS
SYNTAX
ESCAPE SEQUENCES
CHARACTER CLASSES
ANCHORS
QUANTIFIERS
EXTENDED CONSTRUCTS
VARIABLES
FUNCTIONS
TERMINOLOGY
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO
THANKS

perlref - Perl references and nested data structures

NOTE
DESCRIPTION
Making References

1. , 2. , 3. , 4. , 5. , 6. , 7.

Using References
Symbolic references
Not-so-symbolic references
Pseudo-hashes: Using an array as a hash
Function Templates
WARNING
SEE ALSO

perlform - Perl formats

DESCRIPTION
Text Fields
Numeric Fields
The Field @* for Variable Width Multi-Line Text
The Field ^* for Variable Width One-line-at-a-time Text
Specifying Values
Using Fill Mode
Suppressing Lines Where All Fields Are Void
Repeating Format Lines
Top of Form Processing
Format Variables
NOTES
Footers
Accessing Formatting Internals
WARNINGS

perlobj - Perl objects

DESCRIPTION
An Object is Simply a Reference
A Class is Simply a Package
A Method is Simply a Subroutine
Method Invocation
Indirect Object Syntax
Default UNIVERSAL methods

isa(CLASS) , DOES(ROLE) , can(METHOD) , VERSION( [NEED] )

Destructors
Summary
Two-Phased Garbage Collection
SEE ALSO

perltie - how to hide an object class in a simple variable

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Tying Scalars

TIESCALAR classname, LIST , FETCH this , STORE this, value , UNTIE this , DESTROY this

Tying Arrays

TIEARRAY classname, LIST , FETCH this, index , STORE this, index, value , FETCHSIZE this , STORESIZE this, count , EXTEND this, count , EXISTS this, key , DELETE this, key , CLEAR this , PUSH this, LIST , POP this , SHIFT this , UNSHIFT this, LIST , SPLICE this, offset, length, LIST , UNTIE this , DESTROY this

Tying Hashes

USER, HOME, CLOBBER, LIST, TIEHASH classname, LIST , FETCH this, key , STORE this, key, value , DELETE this, key , CLEAR this , EXISTS this, key , FIRSTKEY this , NEXTKEY this, lastkey , SCALAR this , UNTIE this , DESTROY this

Tying FileHandles

TIEHANDLE classname, LIST , WRITE this, LIST , PRINT this, LIST , PRINTF this, LIST , READ this, LIST , READLINE this , GETC this , EOF this , CLOSE this , UNTIE this , DESTROY this

UNTIE this
The untie Gotcha
SEE ALSO
BUGS
AUTHOR

perldbmfilter - Perl DBM Filters

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

filter_store_key, filter_store_value, filter_fetch_key, filter_fetch_value

The Filter
An Example: the NULL termination problem.
Another Example: Key is a C int.
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

perlipc - Perl interprocess communication (signals, fifos, pipes, safe subprocesses, sockets, and semaphores)

DESCRIPTION
Signals
Handling the SIGHUP Signal in Daemons
Named Pipes
Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)

Long-running opcodes, Interrupting IO, Restartable system calls, Signals as "faults", Signals triggered by operating system state

Using open() for IPC
Filehandles
Background Processes
Complete Dissociation of Child from Parent
Safe Pipe Opens
Avoiding Pipe Deadlocks
Bidirectional Communication with Another Process
Bidirectional Communication with Yourself
Sockets: Client/Server Communication
Internet Line Terminators
Internet TCP Clients and Servers
Unix-Domain TCP Clients and Servers
TCP Clients with IO::Socket
A Simple Client

Proto, PeerAddr, PeerPort

A Webget Client
Interactive Client with IO::Socket
TCP Servers with IO::Socket

Proto, LocalPort, Listen, Reuse

UDP: Message Passing
SysV IPC
NOTES
BUGS
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO

perlfork - Perl's fork() emulation

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Behavior of other Perl features in forked pseudo-processes

$$ or $PROCESS_ID, %ENV, chdir() and all other builtins that accept filenames, wait() and waitpid(), kill(), exec(), exit(), Open handles to files, directories and network sockets

Resource limits
Killing the parent process
Lifetime of the parent process and pseudo-processes
CAVEATS AND LIMITATIONS

BEGIN blocks, Open filehandles, Forking pipe open() not yet implemented, Global state maintained by XSUBs, Interpreter embedded in larger application, Thread-safety of extensions

BUGS
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO

perlnumber - semantics of numbers and numeric operations in Perl

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Storing numbers
Numeric operators and numeric conversions
Flavors of Perl numeric operations

Arithmetic operators, ++, Arithmetic operators during use integer, Other mathematical operators, Bitwise operators, Bitwise operators during use integer, Operators which expect an integer, Operators which expect a string

AUTHOR
SEE ALSO

perlthrtut - Tutorial on threads in Perl

DESCRIPTION
What Is A Thread Anyway?
Threaded Program Models
Boss/Worker
Work Crew
Pipeline
What kind of threads are Perl threads?
Thread-Safe Modules
Thread Basics
Basic Thread Support
A Note about the Examples
Creating Threads
Waiting For A Thread To Exit
Ignoring A Thread
Process and Thread Termination
Threads And Data
Shared And Unshared Data
Thread Pitfalls: Races
Synchronization and control
Controlling access: lock()
A Thread Pitfall: Deadlocks
Queues: Passing Data Around
Semaphores: Synchronizing Data Access
Basic semaphores
Advanced Semaphores
Waiting for a Condition
Giving up control
General Thread Utility Routines
What Thread Am I In?
Thread IDs
Are These Threads The Same?
What Threads Are Running?
A Complete Example
Different implementations of threads
Performance considerations
Process-scope Changes
Thread-Safety of System Libraries
Conclusion
SEE ALSO
Bibliography
Introductory Texts
Other References
Acknowledgements
AUTHOR
Copyrights

perlport - Writing portable Perl

DESCRIPTION

Not all Perl programs have to be portable, Nearly all of Perl already is portable

ISSUES
Newlines
Numbers endianness and Width
Files and Filesystems
System Interaction
Command names versus file pathnames
Networking
Interprocess Communication (IPC)
External Subroutines (XS)
Standard Modules
Time and Date
Character sets and character encoding
Internationalisation
System Resources
Security
Style
CPAN Testers
PLATFORMS
Unix
DOS and Derivatives
VMS
VOS
EBCDIC Platforms
Acorn RISC OS
Other perls
FUNCTION IMPLEMENTATIONS
Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions

-X, atan2, binmode, chmod, chown, chroot, crypt, dbmclose, dbmopen, dump, exec, exit, fcntl, flock, fork, getlogin, getpgrp, getppid, getpriority, getpwnam, getgrnam, getnetbyname, getpwuid, getgrgid, getnetbyaddr, getprotobynumber, getservbyport, getpwent, getgrent, gethostbyname, gethostent, getnetent, getprotoent, getservent, sethostent, setnetent, setprotoent, setservent, endpwent, endgrent, endhostent, endnetent, endprotoent, endservent, getsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME, glob, gmtime, ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, kill, link, localtime, lstat, msgctl, msgget, msgsnd, msgrcv, open, readlink, rename, select, semctl, semget, semop, setgrent, setpgrp, setpriority, setpwent, setsockopt, shmctl, shmget, shmread, shmwrite, sockatmark, socketpair, stat, symlink, syscall, sysopen, system, times, truncate, umask, utime, wait, waitpid

Supported Platforms (Perl 5.12)

Linux (x86, ARM, IA64), HP-UX, AIX, Win32, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista, Windows Server 2008, Windows 7, Cygwin, Solaris (x86, SPARC), OpenVMS, Alpha (7.2 and later), I64 (8.2 and later), Symbian, NetBSD, FreeBSD, Haiku, Irix (6.5. What else?), OpenBSD, Dragonfly BSD, MirOS BSD, time_t issues that may or may not be fixed, Symbian (Series 60 v3, 3.2 and 5 - what else?), Stratus VOS, AIX

EOL Platforms (Perl 5.12)

Atari MiNT, Apollo Domain/OS, Apple Mac OS 8/9, Tenon Machten, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows ME, Windows NT4

Supported Platforms (Perl 5.8)
SEE ALSO
AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS

perllocale - Perl locale handling (internationalization and localization)

DESCRIPTION
PREPARING TO USE LOCALES
USING LOCALES
The use locale pragma
The setlocale function
Finding locales
LOCALE PROBLEMS
Temporarily fixing locale problems
Permanently fixing locale problems
Permanently fixing your system's locale configuration
Fixing system locale configuration
The localeconv function
I18N::Langinfo
LOCALE CATEGORIES
Category LC_COLLATE: Collation
Category LC_CTYPE: Character Types
Category LC_NUMERIC: Numeric Formatting
Category LC_MONETARY: Formatting of monetary amounts
LC_TIME
Other categories
SECURITY
ENVIRONMENT

PERL_BADLANG, LC_ALL, LANGUAGE, LC_CTYPE, LC_COLLATE, LC_MONETARY, LC_NUMERIC, LC_TIME, LANG

Examples
NOTES
Backward compatibility
I18N:Collate obsolete
Sort speed and memory use impacts
write() and LC_NUMERIC
Freely available locale definitions
I18n and l10n
An imperfect standard
Unicode and UTF-8
BUGS
Broken systems
SEE ALSO
HISTORY

perluniintro - Perl Unicode introduction

DESCRIPTION
Unicode
Perl's Unicode Support
Perl's Unicode Model
Unicode and EBCDIC
Creating Unicode
Handling Unicode
Legacy Encodings
Unicode I/O
Displaying Unicode As Text
Special Cases
Advanced Topics
Miscellaneous
Questions With Answers
Hexadecimal Notation
Further Resources
UNICODE IN OLDER PERLS
SEE ALSO
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
AUTHOR, COPYRIGHT, AND LICENSE

perlunicode - Unicode support in Perl

DESCRIPTION
Important Caveats

Input and Output Layers, Regular Expressions, use utf8 still needed to enable UTF-8/UTF-EBCDIC in scripts, BOM-marked scripts and UTF-16 scripts autodetected, use encoding needed to upgrade non-Latin-1 byte strings

Byte and Character Semantics
Effects of Character Semantics
Unicode Character Properties

\p{All}, \p{Alnum}, \p{Any}, \p{Assigned}, \p{Blank}, \p{Decomposition_Type: Non_Canonical} (Short: \p{Dt=NonCanon}), \p{Graph}, \p{HorizSpace}, \p{In=*}, \p{PerlSpace}, \p{PerlWord}, \p{PosixAlnum}, \p{PosixAlpha}, \p{PosixBlank}, \p{PosixCntrl}, \p{PosixDigit}, \p{PosixGraph}, \p{PosixLower}, \p{PosixPrint}, \p{PosixPunct}, \p{PosixSpace}, \p{PosixUpper}, \p{Present_In: *} (Short: \p{In=*}), \p{Print}, \p{SpacePerl}, \p{VertSpace}, \p{Word}

User-Defined Character Properties
User-Defined Case Mappings
Character Encodings for Input and Output
Unicode Regular Expression Support Level
Unicode Encodings
Security Implications of Unicode
Unicode in Perl on EBCDIC
Locales
When Unicode Does Not Happen
The "Unicode Bug"
Forcing Unicode in Perl (Or Unforcing Unicode in Perl)
Using Unicode in XS
Hacking Perl to work on earlier Unicode versions (for very serious hackers only)
BUGS
Interaction with Locales
Problems with characters in the Latin-1 Supplement range
Problems with case-insensitive regular expression matching
Interaction with Extensions
Speed
Problems on EBCDIC platforms
Porting code from perl-5.6.X
SEE ALSO

perlunifaq - Perl Unicode FAQ

Q and A
perlunitut isn't really a Unicode tutorial, is it?
What character encodings does Perl support?
Which version of perl should I use?
What about binary data, like images?
When should I decode or encode?
What if I don't decode?
What if I don't encode?
Is there a way to automatically decode or encode?
What if I don't know which encoding was used?
Can I use Unicode in my Perl sources?
Data::Dumper doesn't restore the UTF8 flag; is it broken?
Why do regex character classes sometimes match only in the ASCII range?
Why do some characters not uppercase or lowercase correctly?
How can I determine if a string is a text string or a binary string?
How do I convert from encoding FOO to encoding BAR?
What are decode_utf8 and encode_utf8?
What is a "wide character"?
INTERNALS
What is "the UTF8 flag"?
What about the use bytes pragma?
What about the use encoding pragma?
What is the difference between :encoding and :utf8?
What's the difference between UTF-8 and utf8?
I lost track; what encoding is the internal format really?
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO

perluniprops - Index of Unicode Version 5.2.0 properties in Perl

DESCRIPTION
Properties accessible through \p{} and \P{}

Single form (\p{name}) tighter rules:, white space adjacent to a non-word character, underscores separating digits in numbers, Compound form (\p{name=value} or \p{name:value}) tighter rules:, Obsolete, Stabilized, Deprecated, * is a wild-card, (\d+) in the info column gives the number of code points matched by this property, D means this is deprecated, O means this is obsolete, S means this is stabilized, T means tighter (stricter) name matching applies, X means use of this form is discouraged

\p{Canonical_Combining_Class=Attached_Below_Left}, \p{Joining_Type=Left_Joining}

Properties not accessible through \p{} and \P{}
Unicode regular expression properties that are NOT accepted by Perl
Files in the To directory (for serious hackers only)
SEE ALSO

perlunitut - Perl Unicode Tutorial

DESCRIPTION
Definitions
Your new toolkit
I/O flow (the actual 5 minute tutorial)
SUMMARY
Q and A (or FAQ)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO

perlebcdic - Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms

DESCRIPTION
COMMON CHARACTER CODE SETS
ASCII
ISO 8859
Latin 1 (ISO 8859-1)
EBCDIC
The 13 variant characters
0037
1047
POSIX-BC
Unicode code points versus EBCDIC code points
Remaining Perl Unicode problems in EBCDIC
Unicode and UTF
Using Encode
SINGLE OCTET TABLES

recipe 0, recipe 1, recipe 2, recipe 3, recipe 4, recipe 5, recipe 6

IDENTIFYING CHARACTER CODE SETS
CONVERSIONS
tr///
iconv
C RTL
OPERATOR DIFFERENCES
FUNCTION DIFFERENCES

chr(), ord(), pack(), print(), printf(), sort(), sprintf(), unpack()

REGULAR EXPRESSION DIFFERENCES
SOCKETS
SORTING
Ignore ASCII vs. EBCDIC sort differences.
MONO CASE then sort data.
Convert, sort data, then re convert.
Perform sorting on one type of platform only.
TRANSFORMATION FORMATS
URL decoding and encoding
uu encoding and decoding
Quoted-Printable encoding and decoding
Caesarian ciphers
Hashing order and checksums
I18N AND L10N
MULTI OCTET CHARACTER SETS
OS ISSUES
OS/400

PASE, IFS access

OS/390, z/OS

chcp, dataset access, OS/390, z/OS iconv, locales

VM/ESA?
POSIX-BC?
BUGS
SEE ALSO
REFERENCES
HISTORY
AUTHOR

perlsec - Perl security

DESCRIPTION
SECURITY VULNERABILITY CONTACT INFORMATION
SECURITY MECHANISMS AND CONCERNS
Taint mode
Laundering and Detecting Tainted Data
Switches On the "#!" Line
Taint mode and @INC
Cleaning Up Your Path
Security Bugs
Protecting Your Programs
Unicode
Algorithmic Complexity Attacks
SEE ALSO

perlmod - Perl modules (packages and symbol tables)

DESCRIPTION
Packages
Symbol Tables
BEGIN, UNITCHECK, CHECK, INIT and END
Perl Classes
Perl Modules
Making your module threadsafe
SEE ALSO

perlmodlib - constructing new Perl modules and finding existing ones

THE PERL MODULE LIBRARY
Pragmatic Modules

attributes, autouse, blib, bytes, charnames, deprecate, diagnostics, feature, filetest, integer, less, locale, mro, open, ops, overload, overloading, re, sigtrap, sort, strict, subs, utf8, vars, version, vmsish, warnings, warnings::register

Standard Modules

AnyDBM_File, B, B::Concise, B::Showlex, B::Terse, B::Xref, Benchmark, CORE, Carp, Class::Struct, Config, DB, DBM_Filter, DBM_Filter::compress, DBM_Filter::encode, DBM_Filter::int32, DBM_Filter::null, DBM_Filter::utf8, Devel::DProf, Devel::Peek, Devel::SelfStubber, DirHandle, Dumpvalue, DynaLoader, English, Env, Errno, Exporter, Exporter::Heavy, ExtUtils::Embed, ExtUtils::XSSymSet, Fcntl, File::Basename, File::CheckTree, File::Compare, File::Copy, File::DosGlob, File::Find, File::Glob, File::stat, FileCache, FileHandle, FindBin, GDBM_File, Getopt::Std, Hash::Util, Hash::Util::FieldHash, I18N::Collate, I18N::Langinfo, IPC::Open2, IPC::Open3, NDBM_File, Net::hostent, Net::netent, Net::protoent, Net::servent, O, ODBM_File, Opcode, POSIX, PerlIO, PerlIO::encoding, PerlIO::scalar, PerlIO::via, Pod::Functions, Pod::Html, SDBM_File, Search::Dict, SelectSaver, Socket, Symbol, Sys::Hostname, Term::Complete, Term::ReadLine, Text::Abbrev, Thread, Tie::Array, Tie::Handle, Tie::Hash, Tie::Hash::NamedCapture, Tie::Memoize, Tie::Scalar, Tie::StdHandle, Tie::SubstrHash, Time::Local, Time::gmtime, Time::localtime, Time::tm, UNIVERSAL, Unicode::UCD, User::grent, User::pwent, VMS::DCLsym, VMS::Stdio, Win32CORE, XS::APItest, XS::APItest::KeywordRPN, XS::Typemap, version::Internals

Extension Modules
CPAN
Africa

South Africa

Asia

Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Republic of Korea, Russia, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Viet Nam

Central America

Costa Rica

Europe

Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom

North America

Bahamas, Canada, Mexico, United States, Alabama, California, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin

Oceania

Australia, New Zealand

South America

Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia

RSYNC Mirrors
Modules: Creation, Use, and Abuse
Guidelines for Module Creation
Guidelines for Converting Perl 4 Library Scripts into Modules
Guidelines for Reusing Application Code
NOTE

perlmodstyle - Perl module style guide

INTRODUCTION
QUICK CHECKLIST
Before you start
The API
Stability
Documentation
Release considerations
BEFORE YOU START WRITING A MODULE
Has it been done before?
Do one thing and do it well
What's in a name?
DESIGNING AND WRITING YOUR MODULE
To OO or not to OO?
Designing your API

Write simple routines to do simple things, Separate functionality from output, Provide sensible shortcuts and defaults, Naming conventions, Parameter passing

Strictness and warnings
Backwards compatibility
Error handling and messages
DOCUMENTING YOUR MODULE
POD
README, INSTALL, release notes, changelogs

perl Makefile.PL, make, make test, make install, perl Build.PL, perl Build, perl Build test, perl Build install

RELEASE CONSIDERATIONS
Version numbering
Pre-requisites
Testing
Packaging
Licensing
COMMON PITFALLS
Reinventing the wheel
Trying to do too much
Inappropriate documentation
SEE ALSO

perlstyle, perlnewmod, perlpod, podchecker, Packaging Tools, Testing tools, http://pause.perl.org/, Any good book on software engineering

AUTHOR

perlmodinstall - Installing CPAN Modules

DESCRIPTION
PREAMBLE

DECOMPRESS the file, UNPACK the file into a directory, BUILD the module (sometimes unnecessary), INSTALL the module

PORTABILITY
HEY
AUTHOR
COPYRIGHT

perlnewmod - preparing a new module for distribution

DESCRIPTION
Warning
What should I make into a module?
Step-by-step: Preparing the ground

Look around, Check it's new, Discuss the need, Choose a name, Check again

Step-by-step: Making the module

Start with module-starter or h2xs, Use strict and warnings, Use Carp, Use Exporter - wisely!, Use plain old documentation, Write tests, Write the README

Step-by-step: Distributing your module

Get a CPAN user ID, perl Makefile.PL; make test; make dist, Upload the tarball, Announce to the modules list, Announce to clpa, Fix bugs!

AUTHOR
SEE ALSO

perlpragma - how to write a user pragma

DESCRIPTION
A basic example
Implementation details

perlutil - utilities packaged with the Perl distribution

DESCRIPTION
LIST OF UTILITIES
Documentation

perldoc, pod2man and pod2text, pod2html and pod2latex, pod2usage, podselect, podchecker, splain, roffitall

Convertors

a2p, s2p and psed, find2perl

Administration

config_data, libnetcfg, perlivp

Development

perlbug, perlthanks, h2ph, c2ph and pstruct, h2xs, enc2xs, xsubpp, dprofpp, prove, corelist

General tools

piconv, ptar, ptardiff, shasum

Installation

cpan, cpanp, cpan2dist, instmodsh

SEE ALSO

perlcompile - Introduction to the Perl Compiler-Translator

DESCRIPTION
Layout

B::Lint, B::Deparse, B::Xref

Using The Back Ends
The Cross Referencing Back End

i, &, s, r

The Decompiling Back End
The Lint Back End
Module List for the Compiler Suite

B, O, B::Concise, B::Debug, B::Deparse, B::Lint, B::Showlex, B::Terse, B::Xref

KNOWN PROBLEMS
AUTHOR

perlfilter - Source Filters

DESCRIPTION
CONCEPTS
USING FILTERS
WRITING A SOURCE FILTER
WRITING A SOURCE FILTER IN C

Decryption Filters

CREATING A SOURCE FILTER AS A SEPARATE EXECUTABLE
WRITING A SOURCE FILTER IN PERL
USING CONTEXT: THE DEBUG FILTER
CONCLUSION
THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR

Some Filters Clobber the DATA Handle

REQUIREMENTS
AUTHOR
Copyrights

perlglossary - Perl Glossary

DESCRIPTION
A

accessor methods, actual arguments, address operator, algorithm, alias, alternatives, anonymous, architecture, argument, ARGV, arithmetical operator, array, array context, ASCII, assertion, assignment, assignment operator, associative array, associativity, asynchronous, atom, atomic operation, attribute, autogeneration, autoincrement, autoload, autosplit, autovivification, AV, awk

B

backreference, backtracking, backward compatibility, bareword, base class, big-endian, binary, binary operator, bind, bit, bit shift, bit string, bless, block, BLOCK, block buffering, Boolean, Boolean context, breakpoint, broadcast, BSD, bucket, buffer, built-in, bundle, byte, bytecode

C

C, C preprocessor, call by reference, call by value, callback, canonical, capturing, character, character class, character property, circumfix operator, class, class method, client, cloister, closure, cluster, CODE, code generator, code subpattern, collating sequence, command, command buffering, command name, command-line arguments, comment, compilation unit, compile phase, compile time, compiler, composer, concatenation, conditional, connection, construct, constructor, context, continuation, core dump, CPAN, cracker, current package, current working directory, currently selected output channel, CV

D

dangling statement, data structure, data type, datagram, DBM, declaration, decrement, default, defined, delimiter, deprecated modules and features, dereference, derived class, descriptor, destroy, destructor, device, directive, directory, directory handle, dispatch, distribution, (to be) dropped modules, dweomer, dwimmer, dynamic scoping

E

eclectic, element, embedding, empty subclass test, en passant, encapsulation, endian, environment, environment variable, EOF, errno, error, escape sequence, exception, exception handling, exec, executable file, execute, execute bit, exit status, export, expression, extension

F

false, FAQ, fatal error, field, FIFO, file, file descriptor, file test operator, fileglob, filehandle, filename, filesystem, filter, flag, floating point, flush, FMTEYEWTK, fork, formal arguments, format, freely available, freely redistributable, freeware, function, funny character, garbage collection

G

GID, glob, global, global destruction, glue language, granularity, greedy, grep, group, GV

H

hacker, handler, hard reference, hash, hash table, header file, here document, hexadecimal, home directory, host, hubris, HV

I

identifier, impatience, implementation, import, increment, indexing, indirect filehandle, indirect object, indirect object slot, indirection, infix, inheritance, instance, instance variable, integer, interface, interpolation, interpreter, invocant, invocation, I/O, IO, IP, IPC, is-a, iteration, iterator, IV

J

JAPH

K

key, keyword

L

label, laziness, left shift, leftmost longest, lexeme, lexer, lexical analysis, lexical scoping, lexical variable, library, LIFO, line, line buffering, line number, link, LIST, list, list context, list operator, list value, literal, little-endian, local, logical operator, lookahead, lookbehind, loop, loop control statement, loop label, lvaluable, lvalue, lvalue modifier

M

magic, magical increment, magical variables, Makefile, man, manpage, matching, member data, memory, metacharacter, metasymbol, method, minimalism, mode, modifier, module, modulus, monger, mortal, multidimensional array, multiple inheritance

N

named pipe, namespace, network address, newline, NFS, null character, null list, null string, numeric context, NV, nybble

O

object, octal, offset, one-liner, open source software, operand, operating system, operator, operator overloading, options, overloading, overriding, owner

P

package, pad, parameter, parent class, parse tree, parsing, patch, PATH, pathname, pattern, pattern matching, permission bits, Pern, pipe, pipeline, platform, pod, pointer, polymorphism, port, portable, porter, POSIX, postfix, pp, pragma, precedence, prefix, preprocessing, procedure, process, program generator, progressive matching, property, protocol, prototype, pseudofunction, pseudohash, pseudoliteral, public domain, pumpkin, pumpking, PV

Q

qualified, quantifier

R

readable, reaping, record, recursion, reference, referent, regex, regular expression, regular expression modifier, regular file, relational operator, reserved words, return value, RFC, right shift, root, RTFM, run phase, run time, run-time pattern, RV, rvalue

S

scalar, scalar context, scalar literal, scalar value, scalar variable, scope, scratchpad, script, script kiddie, sed, semaphore, separator, serialization, server, service, setgid, setuid, shared memory, shebang, shell, side effects, signal, signal handler, single inheritance, slice, slurp, socket, soft reference, source filter, stack, standard, standard error, standard I/O, standard input, standard output, stat structure, statement, statement modifier, static, static method, static scoping, static variable, status, STDERR, STDIN, STDIO, STDOUT, stream, string, string context, stringification, struct, structure, subclass, subpattern, subroutine, subscript, substitution, substring, superclass, superuser, SV, switch, switch cluster, switch statement, symbol, symbol table, symbolic debugger, symbolic link, symbolic reference, synchronous, syntactic sugar, syntax, syntax tree, syscall

T

tainted, TCP, term, terminator, ternary, text, thread, tie, TMTOWTDI, token, tokener, tokenizing, toolbox approach, transliterate, trigger, trinary, troff, true, truncating, type, type casting, typed lexical, typedef, typeglob, typemap

U

UDP, UID, umask, unary operator, Unicode, Unix

V

value, variable, variable interpolation, variadic, vector, virtual, void context, v-string

W

warning, watch expression, whitespace, word, working directory, wrapper, WYSIWYG

X

XS, XSUB

Y

yacc

Z

zero width, zombie

AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlembed - how to embed perl in your C program

DESCRIPTION
PREAMBLE

Use C from Perl?, Use a Unix program from Perl?, Use Perl from Perl?, Use C from C?, Use Perl from C?

ROADMAP
Compiling your C program
Adding a Perl interpreter to your C program
Calling a Perl subroutine from your C program
Evaluating a Perl statement from your C program
Performing Perl pattern matches and substitutions from your C program
Fiddling with the Perl stack from your C program
Maintaining a persistent interpreter
Execution of END blocks
$0 assignments
Maintaining multiple interpreter instances
Using Perl modules, which themselves use C libraries, from your C program
Embedding Perl under Win32
Hiding Perl_
MORAL
AUTHOR
COPYRIGHT

perldebguts - Guts of Perl debugging

DESCRIPTION
Debugger Internals
Writing Your Own Debugger
Frame Listing Output Examples
Debugging regular expressions
Compile-time output

anchored STRING at POS, floating STRING at POS1..POS2, matching floating/anchored, minlen, stclass TYPE, noscan, isall, GPOS, plus, implicit, with eval, anchored(TYPE)

Types of nodes
Run-time output
Debugging Perl memory usage
Using $ENV{PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS}

buckets SMALLEST(APPROX)..GREATEST(APPROX), Free/Used, Total sbrk(): SBRKed/SBRKs:CONTINUOUS, pad: 0, heads: 2192, chain: 0, tail: 6144

SEE ALSO

perlxstut, perlXStut - Tutorial for writing XSUBs

DESCRIPTION
SPECIAL NOTES
make
Version caveat
Dynamic Loading versus Static Loading
TUTORIAL
EXAMPLE 1
EXAMPLE 2
What has gone on?
Writing good test scripts
EXAMPLE 3
What's new here?
Input and Output Parameters
The XSUBPP Program
The TYPEMAP file
Warning about Output Arguments
EXAMPLE 4
What has happened here?
Anatomy of .xs file
Getting the fat out of XSUBs
More about XSUB arguments
The Argument Stack
Extending your Extension
Documenting your Extension
Installing your Extension
EXAMPLE 5
New Things in this Example
EXAMPLE 6
New Things in this Example
EXAMPLE 7 (Coming Soon)
EXAMPLE 8 (Coming Soon)
EXAMPLE 9 Passing open files to XSes
Troubleshooting these Examples
See also
Author
Last Changed

perlxs - XS language reference manual

DESCRIPTION
Introduction
On The Road
The Anatomy of an XSUB
The Argument Stack
The RETVAL Variable
Returning SVs, AVs and HVs through RETVAL
The MODULE Keyword
The PACKAGE Keyword
The PREFIX Keyword
The OUTPUT: Keyword
The NO_OUTPUT Keyword
The CODE: Keyword
The INIT: Keyword
The NO_INIT Keyword
Initializing Function Parameters
Default Parameter Values
The PREINIT: Keyword
The SCOPE: Keyword
The INPUT: Keyword
The IN/OUTLIST/IN_OUTLIST/OUT/IN_OUT Keywords
The length(NAME) Keyword
Variable-length Parameter Lists
The C_ARGS: Keyword
The PPCODE: Keyword
Returning Undef And Empty Lists
The REQUIRE: Keyword
The CLEANUP: Keyword
The POSTCALL: Keyword
The BOOT: Keyword
The VERSIONCHECK: Keyword
The PROTOTYPES: Keyword
The PROTOTYPE: Keyword
The ALIAS: Keyword
The OVERLOAD: Keyword
The FALLBACK: Keyword
The INTERFACE: Keyword
The INTERFACE_MACRO: Keyword
The INCLUDE: Keyword
The CASE: Keyword
The & Unary Operator
Inserting POD, Comments and C Preprocessor Directives
Using XS With C++
Interface Strategy
Perl Objects And C Structures
The Typemap
Safely Storing Static Data in XS

MY_CXT_KEY, typedef my_cxt_t, START_MY_CXT, MY_CXT_INIT, dMY_CXT, MY_CXT, aMY_CXT/pMY_CXT, MY_CXT_CLONE, MY_CXT_INIT_INTERP(my_perl), dMY_CXT_INTERP(my_perl)

Thread-aware system interfaces
EXAMPLES
XS VERSION
AUTHOR

perlclib - Internal replacements for standard C library functions

DESCRIPTION
Conventions

t, p, n, s

File Operations
File Input and Output
File Positioning
Memory Management and String Handling
Character Class Tests
stdlib.h functions
Miscellaneous functions
SEE ALSO

perlguts - Introduction to the Perl API

DESCRIPTION
Variables
Datatypes
What is an "IV"?
Working with SVs
Offsets
What's Really Stored in an SV?
Working with AVs
Working with HVs
Hash API Extensions
AVs, HVs and undefined values
References
Blessed References and Class Objects
Creating New Variables

GV_ADDMULTI, GV_ADDWARN

Reference Counts and Mortality
Stashes and Globs
Double-Typed SVs
Magic Variables
Assigning Magic
Magic Virtual Tables
Finding Magic
Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays
Localizing changes

SAVEINT(int i), SAVEIV(IV i), SAVEI32(I32 i), SAVELONG(long i), SAVESPTR(s), SAVEPPTR(p), SAVEFREESV(SV *sv), SAVEMORTALIZESV(SV *sv), SAVEFREEOP(OP *op), SAVEFREEPV(p), SAVECLEARSV(SV *sv), SAVEDELETE(HV *hv, char *key, I32 length), SAVEDESTRUCTOR(DESTRUCTORFUNC_NOCONTEXT_t f, void *p), SAVEDESTRUCTOR_X(DESTRUCTORFUNC_t f, void *p), SAVESTACK_POS(), SV* save_scalar(GV *gv), AV* save_ary(GV *gv), HV* save_hash(GV *gv), void save_item(SV *item), void save_list(SV **sarg, I32 maxsarg), SV* save_svref(SV **sptr), void save_aptr(AV **aptr), void save_hptr(HV **hptr)

Subroutines
XSUBs and the Argument Stack
Calling Perl Routines from within C Programs
Memory Allocation
PerlIO
Putting a C value on Perl stack
Scratchpads
Scratchpads and recursion
Compiled code
Code tree
Examining the tree
Compile pass 1: check routines
Compile pass 1a: constant folding
Compile pass 2: context propagation
Compile pass 3: peephole optimization
Pluggable runops
Examining internal data structures with the dump functions
How multiple interpreters and concurrency are supported
Background and PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT
So what happened to dTHR?
How do I use all this in extensions?
Should I do anything special if I call perl from multiple threads?
Future Plans and PERL_IMPLICIT_SYS
Internal Functions

A, p, d, s, n, r, f, M, o, x, m, X, E, b, others

Formatted Printing of IVs, UVs, and NVs
Pointer-To-Integer and Integer-To-Pointer
Exception Handling
Source Documentation
Backwards compatibility
Unicode Support
What is Unicode, anyway?
How can I recognise a UTF-8 string?
How does UTF-8 represent Unicode characters?
How does Perl store UTF-8 strings?
How do I convert a string to UTF-8?
Is there anything else I need to know?
Custom Operators
AUTHORS
SEE ALSO

perlcall - Perl calling conventions from C

DESCRIPTION

An Error Handler, An Event Driven Program

THE CALL_ FUNCTIONS

call_sv, call_pv, call_method, call_argv

FLAG VALUES
G_VOID
G_SCALAR
G_ARRAY
G_DISCARD
G_NOARGS
G_EVAL
G_KEEPERR
Determining the Context
EXAMPLES
No Parameters, Nothing returned
Passing Parameters
Returning a Scalar
Returning a list of values
Returning a list in a scalar context
Returning Data from Perl via the parameter list
Using G_EVAL
Using G_KEEPERR
Using call_sv
Using call_argv
Using call_method
Using GIMME_V
Using Perl to dispose of temporaries
Strategies for storing Callback Context Information

1. Ignore the problem - Allow only 1 callback, 2. Create a sequence of callbacks - hard wired limit, 3. Use a parameter to map to the Perl callback

Alternate Stack Manipulation
Creating and calling an anonymous subroutine in C
LIGHTWEIGHT CALLBACKS
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR
DATE

perlmroapi - Perl method resolution plugin interface

DESCRIPTION

resolve, name, length, kflags, hash

Callbacks
Caching
Examples
AUTHORS

perlreapi - perl regular expression plugin interface

DESCRIPTION
Callbacks
comp

/m - RXf_PMf_MULTILINE, /s - RXf_PMf_SINGLELINE, /i - RXf_PMf_FOLD, /x - RXf_PMf_EXTENDED, /p - RXf_PMf_KEEPCOPY, RXf_PMf_LOCALE, RXf_UTF8, RXf_SPLIT, RXf_SKIPWHITE, RXf_START_ONLY, RXf_WHITE, RXf_NULL

exec
intuit
checkstr
free
Numbered capture callbacks
Named capture callbacks
qr_package
dupe
The REGEXP structure
engine
mother_re
extflags
minlen minlenret
gofs
substrs
nparens, lasparen, and lastcloseparen
intflags
pprivate
swap
offs
precomp prelen
paren_names
substrs
subbeg sublen saved_copy
wrapped wraplen
seen_evals
refcnt
HISTORY
AUTHORS
LICENSE

perlreguts - Description of the Perl regular expression engine.

DESCRIPTION
OVERVIEW
A quick note on terms
What is a regular expression engine?
Structure of a Regexp Program

regnode_1, regnode_2, regnode_string, regnode_charclass, regnode_charclass_class

Process Overview

A. Compilation, 1. Parsing for size, 2. Parsing for construction, 3. Peep-hole optimisation and analysis, B. Execution, 4. Start position and no-match optimisations, 5. Program execution

Compilation

anchored fixed strings, floating fixed strings, minimum and maximum length requirements, start class, Beginning/End of line positions

Execution
MISCELLANEOUS
Unicode and Localisation Support
Base Structures

swap, offsets, regstclass, data, program

SEE ALSO
AUTHOR
LICENCE
REFERENCES

perlapi - autogenerated documentation for the perl public API

DESCRIPTION
"Gimme" Values

GIMME , GIMME_V , G_ARRAY , G_DISCARD , G_EVAL , G_NOARGS , G_SCALAR , G_VOID

Array Manipulation Functions

AvFILL , av_clear , av_create_and_push , av_create_and_unshift_one , av_delete , av_exists , av_extend , av_fetch , av_fill , av_len , av_make , av_pop , av_push , av_shift , av_store , av_undef , av_unshift , get_av , newAV , sortsv , sortsv_flags

Callback Functions

call_argv , call_method , call_pv , call_sv , ENTER , eval_pv , eval_sv , FREETMPS , LEAVE , SAVETMPS

Character classes

isALNUM , isALPHA , isDIGIT , isLOWER , isSPACE , isUPPER , toLOWER , toUPPER

Cloning an interpreter

perl_clone

CV Manipulation Functions

CvSTASH , get_cv , get_cvn_flags

Embedding Functions

cv_undef , load_module , nothreadhook , perl_alloc , perl_construct , perl_destruct , perl_free , perl_parse , perl_run , require_pv

Functions in file dump.c

pv_display , pv_escape , pv_pretty

Functions in file mathoms.c

gv_fetchmethod , pack_cat , sv_2pvbyte_nolen , sv_2pvutf8_nolen , sv_2pv_nolen , sv_catpvn_mg , sv_catsv_mg , sv_force_normal , sv_iv , sv_nolocking , sv_nounlocking , sv_nv , sv_pv , sv_pvbyte , sv_pvbyten , sv_pvn , sv_pvutf8 , sv_pvutf8n , sv_taint , sv_unref , sv_usepvn , sv_usepvn_mg , sv_uv , unpack_str

Functions in file perl.h

PERL_SYS_INIT , PERL_SYS_INIT3 , PERL_SYS_TERM

Functions in file pp_ctl.c

find_runcv

Functions in file pp_pack.c

packlist , unpackstring

Functions in file pp_sys.c

setdefout

Global Variables

PL_keyword_plugin

GV Functions

GvSV , gv_const_sv , gv_fetchmeth , gv_fetchmethod_autoload , gv_fetchmeth_autoload , gv_stashpv , gv_stashpvn , gv_stashpvs , gv_stashsv

Handy Values

Nullav , Nullch , Nullcv , Nullhv , Nullsv

Hash Manipulation Functions

get_hv , HEf_SVKEY , HeHASH , HeKEY , HeKLEN , HePV , HeSVKEY , HeSVKEY_force , HeSVKEY_set , HeUTF8 , HeVAL , HvNAME , hv_assert , hv_clear , hv_clear_placeholders , hv_delete , hv_delete_ent , hv_exists , hv_exists_ent , hv_fetch , hv_fetchs , hv_fetch_ent , hv_iterinit , hv_iterkey , hv_iterkeysv , hv_iternext , hv_iternextsv , hv_iternext_flags , hv_iterval , hv_magic , hv_scalar , hv_store , hv_stores , hv_store_ent , hv_undef , newHV

Lexer interface

lex_bufutf8 , lex_discard_to , lex_grow_linestr , lex_next_chunk , lex_peek_unichar , lex_read_space , lex_read_to , lex_read_unichar , lex_stuff_pvn , lex_stuff_sv , lex_unstuff , PL_parser , PL_parser->bufend , PL_parser->bufptr , PL_parser->linestart , PL_parser->linestr

Magical Functions

mg_clear , mg_copy , mg_find , mg_free , mg_get , mg_length , mg_magical , mg_set , SvGETMAGIC , SvLOCK , SvSETMAGIC , SvSetMagicSV , SvSetMagicSV_nosteal , SvSetSV , SvSetSV_nosteal , SvSHARE , SvUNLOCK

Memory Management

Copy , CopyD , Move , MoveD , Newx , Newxc , Newxz , Poison , PoisonFree , PoisonNew , PoisonWith , Renew , Renewc , Safefree , savepv , savepvn , savepvs , savesharedpv , savesharedpvn , savesvpv , StructCopy , Zero , ZeroD

Miscellaneous Functions

fbm_compile , fbm_instr , form , getcwd_sv , my_snprintf , my_sprintf , my_vsnprintf , new_version , prescan_version , scan_version , strEQ , strGE , strGT , strLE , strLT , strNE , strnEQ , strnNE , sv_destroyable , sv_nosharing , upg_version , vcmp , vnormal , vnumify , vstringify , vverify

MRO Functions

mro_get_linear_isa , mro_method_changed_in

Multicall Functions

dMULTICALL , MULTICALL , POP_MULTICALL , PUSH_MULTICALL

Numeric functions

grok_bin , grok_hex , grok_number , grok_numeric_radix , grok_oct , Perl_signbit , scan_bin , scan_hex , scan_oct

Optree Manipulation Functions

cv_const_sv , newCONSTSUB , newXS

Pad Data Structures

pad_findmy , pad_sv

Per-Interpreter Variables

PL_modglobal , PL_na , PL_opfreehook , PL_sv_no , PL_sv_undef , PL_sv_yes

REGEXP Functions

SvRX , SvRXOK

Simple Exception Handling Macros

dXCPT , XCPT_CATCH , XCPT_RETHROW , XCPT_TRY_END , XCPT_TRY_START

Stack Manipulation Macros

dMARK , dORIGMARK , dSP , EXTEND , MARK , mPUSHi , mPUSHn , mPUSHp , mPUSHs , mPUSHu , mXPUSHi , mXPUSHn , mXPUSHp , mXPUSHs , mXPUSHu , ORIGMARK , POPi , POPl , POPn , POPp , POPpbytex , POPpx , POPs , PUSHi , PUSHMARK , PUSHmortal , PUSHn , PUSHp , PUSHs , PUSHu , PUTBACK , SP , SPAGAIN , XPUSHi , XPUSHmortal , XPUSHn , XPUSHp , XPUSHs , XPUSHu , XSRETURN , XSRETURN_EMPTY , XSRETURN_IV , XSRETURN_NO , XSRETURN_NV , XSRETURN_PV , XSRETURN_UNDEF , XSRETURN_UV , XSRETURN_YES , XST_mIV , XST_mNO , XST_mNV , XST_mPV , XST_mUNDEF , XST_mYES

SV Flags

svtype , SVt_IV , SVt_NV , SVt_PV , SVt_PVAV , SVt_PVCV , SVt_PVHV , SVt_PVMG

SV Manipulation Functions

croak_xs_usage , get_sv , newRV_inc , newSVpvn_utf8 , SvCUR , SvCUR_set , SvEND , SvGAMAGIC , SvGROW , SvIOK , SvIOKp , SvIOK_notUV , SvIOK_off , SvIOK_on , SvIOK_only , SvIOK_only_UV , SvIOK_UV , SvIsCOW , SvIsCOW_shared_hash , SvIV , SvIVX , SvIVx , SvIV_nomg , SvIV_set , SvLEN , SvLEN_set , SvMAGIC_set , SvNIOK , SvNIOKp , SvNIOK_off , SvNOK , SvNOKp , SvNOK_off , SvNOK_on , SvNOK_only , SvNV , SvNVX , SvNVx , SvNV_set , SvOK , SvOOK , SvOOK_offset , SvPOK , SvPOKp , SvPOK_off , SvPOK_on , SvPOK_only , SvPOK_only_UTF8 , SvPV , SvPVbyte , SvPVbytex , SvPVbytex_force , SvPVbyte_force , SvPVbyte_nolen , SvPVutf8 , SvPVutf8x , SvPVutf8x_force , SvPVutf8_force , SvPVutf8_nolen , SvPVX , SvPVx , SvPV_force , SvPV_force_nomg , SvPV_nolen , SvPV_nomg , SvPV_set , SvREFCNT , SvREFCNT_dec , SvREFCNT_inc , SvREFCNT_inc_NN , SvREFCNT_inc_simple , SvREFCNT_inc_simple_NN , SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void , SvREFCNT_inc_simple_void_NN , SvREFCNT_inc_void , SvREFCNT_inc_void_NN , SvROK , SvROK_off , SvROK_on , SvRV , SvRV_set , SvSTASH , SvSTASH_set , SvTAINT , SvTAINTED , SvTAINTED_off , SvTAINTED_on , SvTRUE , SvTYPE , SvUOK , SvUPGRADE , SvUTF8 , SvUTF8_off , SvUTF8_on , SvUV , SvUVX , SvUVx , SvUV_nomg , SvUV_set , SvVOK , sv_catpvn_nomg , sv_catsv_nomg , sv_derived_from , sv_does , sv_report_used , sv_setsv_nomg , sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg

SV-Body Allocation

looks_like_number , newRV_noinc , newSV , newSVhek , newSViv , newSVnv , newSVpv , newSVpvf , newSVpvn , newSVpvn_flags , newSVpvn_share , newSVpvs , newSVpvs_flags , newSVpvs_share , newSVrv , newSVsv , newSVuv , newSV_type , sv_2bool , sv_2cv , sv_2io , sv_2iv_flags , sv_2mortal , sv_2nv , sv_2pvbyte , sv_2pvutf8 , sv_2pv_flags , sv_2uv_flags , sv_backoff , sv_bless , sv_catpv , sv_catpvf , sv_catpvf_mg , sv_catpvn , sv_catpvn_flags , sv_catpvs , sv_catpv_mg , sv_catsv , sv_catsv_flags , sv_chop , sv_clear , sv_cmp , sv_cmp_locale , sv_collxfrm , sv_copypv , sv_dec , sv_eq , sv_force_normal_flags , sv_free , sv_gets , sv_grow , sv_inc , sv_insert , sv_insert_flags , sv_isa , sv_isobject , sv_len , sv_len_utf8 , sv_magic , sv_magicext , sv_mortalcopy , sv_newmortal , sv_newref , sv_pos_b2u , sv_pos_u2b , sv_pos_u2b_flags , sv_pvbyten_force , sv_pvn_force , sv_pvn_force_flags , sv_pvutf8n_force , sv_reftype , sv_replace , sv_reset , sv_rvweaken , sv_setiv , sv_setiv_mg , sv_setnv , sv_setnv_mg , sv_setpv , sv_setpvf , sv_setpvf_mg , sv_setpviv , sv_setpviv_mg , sv_setpvn , sv_setpvn_mg , sv_setpvs , sv_setpv_mg , sv_setref_iv , sv_setref_nv , sv_setref_pv , sv_setref_pvn , sv_setref_uv , sv_setsv , sv_setsv_flags , sv_setsv_mg , sv_setuv , sv_setuv_mg , sv_tainted , sv_true , sv_unmagic , sv_unref_flags , sv_untaint , sv_upgrade , sv_usepvn_flags , sv_utf8_decode , sv_utf8_downgrade , sv_utf8_encode , sv_utf8_upgrade , sv_utf8_upgrade_flags , sv_utf8_upgrade_nomg , sv_vcatpvf , sv_vcatpvfn , sv_vcatpvf_mg , sv_vsetpvf , sv_vsetpvfn , sv_vsetpvf_mg

Unicode Support

bytes_from_utf8 , bytes_to_utf8 , ibcmp_utf8 , is_ascii_string , is_utf8_char , is_utf8_string , is_utf8_string_loc , is_utf8_string_loclen , pv_uni_display , sv_cat_decode , sv_recode_to_utf8 , sv_uni_display , to_utf8_case , to_utf8_fold , to_utf8_lower , to_utf8_title , to_utf8_upper , utf8n_to_uvchr , utf8n_to_uvuni , utf8_distance , utf8_hop , utf8_length , utf8_to_bytes , utf8_to_uvchr , utf8_to_uvuni , uvchr_to_utf8 , uvuni_to_utf8_flags

Variables created by xsubpp and xsubpp internal functions

ax , CLASS , dAX , dAXMARK , dITEMS , dUNDERBAR , dXSARGS , dXSI32 , items , ix , newXSproto , RETVAL , ST , THIS , UNDERBAR , XS , XS_VERSION , XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK

Warning and Dieing

croak , warn , GetVars , Gv_AMupdate , PerlIO_clearerr , PerlIO_close , PerlIO_context_layers , PerlIO_eof , PerlIO_error , PerlIO_fileno , PerlIO_fill , PerlIO_flush , PerlIO_get_base , PerlIO_get_bufsiz , PerlIO_get_cnt , PerlIO_get_ptr , PerlIO_read , PerlIO_seek , PerlIO_set_cnt , PerlIO_set_ptrcnt , PerlIO_setlinebuf , PerlIO_stderr , PerlIO_stdin , PerlIO_stdout , PerlIO_tell , PerlIO_unread , PerlIO_write , Slab_Alloc , Slab_Free , amagic_call , any_dup , apply_attrs_string , atfork_lock , atfork_unlock , av_arylen_p , av_iter_p , block_gimme , call_atexit , call_list , calloc , cast_i32 , cast_iv , cast_ulong , cast_uv , ck_warner , ck_warner_d , ckwarn , ckwarn_d , croak_nocontext , csighandler , custom_op_desc , custom_op_name , cx_dump , cx_dup , cxinc , deb , deb_nocontext , debop , debprofdump , debstack , debstackptrs , delimcpy , despatch_signals , die , die_nocontext , dirp_dup , do_aspawn , do_binmode , do_close , do_gv_dump , do_gvgv_dump , do_hv_dump , do_join , do_magic_dump , do_op_dump , do_open , do_open9 , do_openn , do_pmop_dump , do_spawn , do_spawn_nowait , do_sprintf , do_sv_dump , doing_taint , doref , dounwind , dowantarray , dump_all , dump_eval , dump_fds , dump_form , dump_indent , dump_mstats , dump_packsubs , dump_sub , dump_vindent , fetch_cop_label , filter_add , filter_del , filter_read , find_rundefsvoffset , form_nocontext , fp_dup , fprintf_nocontext , free_global_struct , free_tmps , get_context , get_mstats , get_op_descs , get_op_names , get_ppaddr , get_vtbl , gp_dup , gp_free , gp_ref , gv_AVadd , gv_HVadd , gv_IOadd , gv_SVadd , gv_add_by_type , gv_autoload4 , gv_check , gv_dump , gv_efullname , gv_efullname3 , gv_efullname4 , gv_fetchfile , gv_fetchfile_flags , gv_fetchmethod_flags , gv_fetchpv , gv_fetchpvn_flags , gv_fetchsv , gv_fullname , gv_fullname3 , gv_fullname4 , gv_handler , gv_init , gv_name_set , he_dup , hek_dup , hv_common , hv_common_key_len , hv_delayfree_ent , hv_eiter_p , hv_eiter_set , hv_free_ent , hv_ksplit , hv_name_set , hv_placeholders_get , hv_placeholders_p , hv_placeholders_set , hv_riter_p , hv_riter_set , hv_store_flags , ibcmp , ibcmp_locale , init_global_struct , init_i18nl10n , init_i18nl14n , init_stacks , init_tm , instr , is_lvalue_sub , is_uni_alnum , is_uni_alnum_lc , is_uni_alpha , is_uni_alpha_lc , is_uni_ascii , is_uni_ascii_lc , is_uni_cntrl , is_uni_cntrl_lc , is_uni_digit , is_uni_digit_lc , is_uni_graph , is_uni_graph_lc , is_uni_idfirst , is_uni_idfirst_lc , is_uni_lower , is_uni_lower_lc , is_uni_print , is_uni_print_lc , is_uni_punct , is_uni_punct_lc , is_uni_space , is_uni_space_lc , is_uni_upper , is_uni_upper_lc , is_uni_xdigit , is_uni_xdigit_lc , is_utf8_alnum , is_utf8_alpha , is_utf8_ascii , is_utf8_cntrl , is_utf8_digit , is_utf8_graph , is_utf8_idcont , is_utf8_idfirst , is_utf8_lower , is_utf8_mark , is_utf8_perl_space , is_utf8_perl_word , is_utf8_posix_digit , is_utf8_print , is_utf8_punct , is_utf8_space , is_utf8_upper , is_utf8_xdigit , leave_scope , load_module_nocontext , magic_dump , malloc , markstack_grow , mess , mess_nocontext , mfree , mg_dup , mg_size , mini_mktime , moreswitches , mro_get_from_name , mro_get_private_data , mro_register , mro_set_mro , mro_set_private_data , my_atof , my_atof2 , my_bcopy , my_bzero , my_chsize , my_cxt_index , my_cxt_init , my_dirfd , my_exit , my_failure_exit , my_fflush_all , my_fork , my_htonl , my_lstat , my_memcmp , my_memset , my_ntohl , my_pclose , my_popen , my_popen_list , my_setenv , my_socketpair , my_stat , my_strftime , my_strlcat , my_strlcpy , my_swap , newANONATTRSUB , newANONHASH , newANONLIST , newANONSUB , newASSIGNOP , newATTRSUB , newAVREF , newBINOP , newCONDOP , newCVREF , newFORM , newFOROP , newGIVENOP , newGVOP , newGVREF , newGVgen , newHVREF , newHVhv , newIO , newLISTOP , newLOGOP , newLOOPEX , newLOOPOP , newMYSUB , newNULLLIST , newOP , newPADOP , newPMOP , newPROG , newPVOP , newRANGE , newRV , newSLICEOP , newSTATEOP , newSUB , newSVOP , newSVREF , newSVpvf_nocontext , newUNOP , newWHENOP , newWHILEOP , newXS_flags , new_collate , new_ctype , new_numeric , new_stackinfo , ninstr , op_dump , op_free , op_null , op_refcnt_lock , op_refcnt_unlock , parser_dup , perl_alloc_using , perl_clone_using , pmop_dump , pop_scope , pregcomp , pregexec , pregfree , pregfree2 , printf_nocontext , ptr_table_clear , ptr_table_fetch , ptr_table_free , ptr_table_new , ptr_table_split , ptr_table_store , push_scope , re_compile , re_dup_guts , re_intuit_start , re_intuit_string , realloc , reentrant_free , reentrant_init , reentrant_retry , reentrant_size , ref , reg_named_buff_all , reg_named_buff_exists , reg_named_buff_fetch , reg_named_buff_firstkey , reg_named_buff_nextkey , reg_named_buff_scalar , regclass_swash , regdump , regdupe_internal , regexec_flags , regfree_internal , reginitcolors , regnext , repeatcpy , rninstr , rsignal , rsignal_state , runops_debug , runops_standard , rvpv_dup , safesyscalloc , safesysfree , safesysmalloc , safesysrealloc , save_I16 , save_I32 , save_I8 , save_adelete , save_aelem , save_aelem_flags , save_alloc , save_aptr , save_ary , save_bool , save_clearsv , save_delete , save_destructor , save_destructor_x , save_freepv , save_freesv , save_generic_pvref , save_generic_svref , save_gp , save_hash , save_hdelete , save_helem , save_helem_flags , save_hptr , save_int , save_item , save_iv , save_list , save_long , save_mortalizesv , save_nogv , save_padsv_and_mortalize , save_pptr , save_pushptr , save_re_context , save_scalar , save_set_svflags , save_shared_pvref , save_sptr , save_svref , save_vptr , savestack_grow , savestack_grow_cnt , scan_num , scan_vstring , screaminstr , seed , set_context , set_numeric_local , set_numeric_radix , set_numeric_standard , share_hek , si_dup , ss_dup , stack_grow , start_subparse , stashpv_hvname_match , str_to_version , sv_2iv , sv_2pv , sv_2uv , sv_catpvf_mg_nocontext , sv_catpvf_nocontext , sv_compile_2op , sv_dump , sv_dup , sv_peek , sv_pvn_nomg , sv_setpvf_mg_nocontext , sv_setpvf_nocontext , sv_utf8_upgrade_flags_grow , swash_fetch , swash_init , sys_init , sys_init3 , sys_intern_clear , sys_intern_dup , sys_intern_init , sys_term , taint_env , taint_proper , tmps_grow , to_uni_fold , to_uni_lower , to_uni_lower_lc , to_uni_title , to_uni_title_lc , to_uni_upper , to_uni_upper_lc , unlnk , unsharepvn , utf16_to_utf8 , utf16_to_utf8_reversed , uvchr_to_utf8_flags , uvuni_to_utf8 , vcroak , vdeb , vform , vload_module , vmess , vnewSVpvf , vwarn , vwarner , warn_nocontext , warner , warner_nocontext , whichsig

AUTHORS
SEE ALSO

perlintern - autogenerated documentation of purely internal Perl functions

DESCRIPTION
CV reference counts and CvOUTSIDE

CvWEAKOUTSIDE

Functions in file pad.h

CX_CURPAD_SAVE , CX_CURPAD_SV , PAD_BASE_SV , PAD_CLONE_VARS , PAD_COMPNAME_FLAGS , PAD_COMPNAME_GEN , PAD_COMPNAME_GEN_set , PAD_COMPNAME_OURSTASH , PAD_COMPNAME_PV , PAD_COMPNAME_TYPE , PAD_DUP , PAD_RESTORE_LOCAL , PAD_SAVE_LOCAL , PAD_SAVE_SETNULLPAD , PAD_SETSV , PAD_SET_CUR , PAD_SET_CUR_NOSAVE , PAD_SV , PAD_SVl , SAVECLEARSV , SAVECOMPPAD , SAVEPADSV

Functions in file pp_ctl.c

docatch

GV Functions

gv_try_downgrade , is_gv_magical_sv

Hash Manipulation Functions

refcounted_he_chain_2hv , refcounted_he_free , refcounted_he_new

IO Functions

start_glob

Magical Functions

magic_clearhint , magic_clearhints , magic_sethint , mg_localize

MRO Functions

mro_get_linear_isa_dfs , mro_isa_changed_in

Pad Data Structures

CvPADLIST , cv_clone , cv_dump , do_dump_pad , intro_my , pad_add_anon , pad_add_name , pad_alloc , pad_block_start , pad_check_dup , pad_findlex , pad_fixup_inner_anons , pad_free , pad_leavemy , pad_new , pad_push , pad_reset , pad_setsv , pad_swipe , pad_tidy , pad_undef

Per-Interpreter Variables

PL_DBsingle , PL_DBsub , PL_DBtrace , PL_dowarn , PL_last_in_gv , PL_ofsgv , PL_rs

Stack Manipulation Macros

djSP , LVRET

SV Manipulation Functions

sv_add_arena , sv_clean_all , sv_clean_objs , sv_free_arenas

SV-Body Allocation

sv_2num

Unicode Support

find_uninit_var , report_uninit , F0convert , Slab_to_rw , add_data , add_utf16_textfilter , addmad , allocmy , amagic_cmp , amagic_cmp_locale , amagic_i_ncmp , amagic_ncmp , anonymise_cv , ao , append_elem , append_list , append_madprops , apply , apply_attrs , apply_attrs_my , av_reify , bad_type , bind_match , block_end , block_start , boot_core_PerlIO , boot_core_UNIVERSAL , boot_core_mro , bytes_to_uni , cando , check_type_and_open , check_uni , checkcomma , checkposixcc , ck_anoncode , ck_bitop , ck_concat , ck_defined , ck_delete , ck_die , ck_each , ck_eof , ck_eval , ck_exec , ck_exists , ck_exit , ck_ftst , ck_fun , ck_glob , ck_grep , ck_index , ck_join , ck_lfun , ck_listiob , ck_match , ck_method , ck_null , ck_open , ck_readline , ck_repeat , ck_require , ck_return , ck_rfun , ck_rvconst , ck_sassign , ck_select , ck_shift , ck_sort , ck_spair , ck_split , ck_subr , ck_substr , ck_svconst , ck_trunc , ck_unpack , ckwarn_common , cl_and , cl_anything , cl_init , cl_init_zero , cl_is_anything , cl_or , clear_placeholders , closest_cop , convert , cop_free , cr_textfilter , create_eval_scope , curmad , cv_ckproto_len , deb_curcv , deb_stack_all , deb_stack_n , debprof , debug_start_match , del_sv , delete_eval_scope , deprecate_commaless_var_list , destroy_matcher , die_where , div128 , do_aexec , do_aexec5 , do_chomp , do_chop , do_delete_local , do_eof , do_exec , do_exec3 , do_execfree , do_ipcctl , do_ipcget , do_kv , do_msgrcv , do_msgsnd , do_oddball , do_op_xmldump , do_pmop_xmldump , do_print , do_readline , do_seek , do_semop , do_shmio , do_smartmatch , do_sysseek , do_tell , do_trans , do_trans_complex , do_trans_complex_utf8 , do_trans_count , do_trans_count_utf8 , do_trans_simple , do_trans_simple_utf8 , do_vecget , do_vecset , do_vop , doeval , dofile , dofindlabel , doform , dooneliner , doopen_pm , doparseform , dopoptoeval , dopoptogiven , dopoptolabel , dopoptoloop , dopoptosub_at , dopoptowhen , dump_all_perl , dump_exec_pos , dump_packsubs_perl , dump_sub_perl , dump_sv_child , dump_trie , dump_trie_interim_list , dump_trie_interim_table , dumpuntil , dup_attrlist , emulate_cop_io , exec_failed , expect_number , feature_is_enabled , filter_gets , find_and_forget_pmops , find_array_subscript , find_beginning , find_byclass , find_hash_subscript , find_in_my_stash , find_script , first_symbol , fold_constants , forbid_setid , force_ident , force_list , force_next , force_strict_version , force_version , force_word , forget_pmop , free_tied_hv_pool , gen_constant_list , get_arena , get_aux_mg , get_db_sub , get_debug_opts , get_hash_seed , get_isa_hash , get_no_modify , get_num , get_opargs , get_re_arg , getenv_len , glob_2number , glob_assign_glob , glob_assign_ref , group_end , gv_ename , gv_get_super_pkg , gv_init_sv , hfreeentries , hsplit , hv_auxinit , hv_backreferences_p , hv_copy_hints_hv , hv_delete_common , hv_kill_backrefs , hv_magic_check , hv_notallowed , incline , incpush , incpush_if_exists , incpush_use_sep , ingroup , init_argv_symbols , init_debugger , init_ids , init_interp , init_main_stash , init_perllib , init_postdump_symbols , init_predump_symbols , intuit_method , intuit_more , invert , io_close , is_an_int , is_handle_constructor , is_inplace_av , is_list_assignment , is_utf8_X_L , is_utf8_X_LV , is_utf8_X_LVT , is_utf8_X_LV_LVT_V , is_utf8_X_T , is_utf8_X_V , is_utf8_X_begin , is_utf8_X_extend , is_utf8_X_non_hangul , is_utf8_X_prepend , is_utf8_char_slow , is_utf8_common , isa_lookup , jmaybe , join_exact , keyword , keyword_plugin_standard , lex_end , lex_start , linklist , list , listkids , localize , looks_like_bool , lop , mad_free , madlex , madparse , magic_clear_all_env , magic_clearenv , magic_clearisa , magic_clearpack , magic_clearsig , magic_existspack , magic_freearylen_p , magic_freeovrld , magic_get , magic_getarylen , magic_getdefelem , magic_getnkeys , magic_getpack , magic_getpos , magic_getsig , magic_getsubstr , magic_gettaint , magic_getuvar , magic_getvec , magic_killbackrefs , magic_len , magic_methcall , magic_methpack , magic_nextpack , magic_regdata_cnt , magic_regdatum_get , magic_regdatum_set , magic_scalarpack , magic_set , magic_set_all_env , magic_setamagic , magic_setarylen , magic_setcollxfrm , magic_setdbline , magic_setdefelem , magic_setenv , magic_setisa , magic_setmglob , magic_setnkeys , magic_setpack , magic_setpos , magic_setregexp , magic_setsig , magic_setsubstr , magic_settaint , magic_setutf8 , magic_setuvar , magic_setvec , magic_sizepack , magic_wipepack , make_matcher , make_trie , make_trie_failtable , malloc_good_size , malloced_size , matcher_matches_sv , measure_struct , mem_collxfrm , mem_log_common , mess_alloc , method_common , missingterm , mod , mode_from_discipline , modkids , more_bodies , more_sv , mro_meta_dup , mro_meta_init , mul128 , mulexp10 , my_attrs , my_betoh16 , my_betoh32 , my_betoh64 , my_betohi , my_betohl , my_betohs , my_clearenv , my_exit_jump , my_htobe16 , my_htobe32 , my_htobe64 , my_htobei , my_htobel , my_htobes , my_htole16 , my_htole32 , my_htole64 , my_htolei , my_htolel , my_htoles , my_kid , my_letoh16 , my_letoh32 , my_letoh64 , my_letohi , my_letohl , my_letohs , my_swabn , my_unexec , need_utf8 , newDEFSVOP , newGIVWHENOP , newGP , newMADPROP , newMADsv , newTOKEN , new_constant , new_he , new_logop , new_warnings_bitfield , next_symbol , nextargv , nextchar , no_bareword_allowed , no_fh_allowed , no_op , not_a_number , nuke_stacks , num_overflow , offer_nice_chunk , oopsAV , oopsHV , op_clear , op_const_sv , op_getmad , op_getmad_weak , op_refcnt_dec , op_refcnt_inc , op_xmldump , open_script , opt_scalarhv , pack_rec , package , package_version , pad_add_name_sv , pad_compname_type , pad_peg , parse_body , parse_unicode_opts , parser_free , path_is_absolute , peep , pending_Slabs_to_ro , pidgone , pm_description , pmflag , pmop_xmldump , pmruntime , pmtrans , prepend_elem , prepend_madprops , printbuf , process_special_blocks , ptr_table_find , put_byte , qerror , qsortsvu , re_croak2 , readpipe_override , ref_array_or_hash , refcounted_he_fetch , refcounted_he_new_common , refcounted_he_value , refkids , refto , reg , reg_check_named_buff_matched , reg_named_buff , reg_named_buff_iter , reg_namedseq , reg_node , reg_numbered_buff_fetch , reg_numbered_buff_length , reg_numbered_buff_store , reg_qr_package , reg_recode , reg_scan_name , reg_skipcomment , reg_temp_copy , reganode , regatom , regbranch , regclass , regcppop , regcppush , regcurly , regdump_extflags , reghop3 , reghop4 , reghopmaybe3 , reginclass , reginsert , regmatch , regpiece , regpposixcc , regprop , regrepeat , regtail , regtail_study , regtry , reguni , regwhite , report_evil_fh , require_tie_mod , restore_magic , rsignal_restore , rsignal_save , run_body , run_user_filter , rxres_free , rxres_restore , rxres_save , same_dirent , save_freeop , save_hek_flags , save_hints , save_lines , save_magic , save_op , save_pushi32ptr , save_pushptri32ptr , save_pushptrptr , save_scalar_at , sawparens , scalar , scalar_mod_type , scalarboolean , scalarkids , scalarseq , scalarvoid , scan_commit , scan_const , scan_formline , scan_heredoc , scan_ident , scan_inputsymbol , scan_pat , scan_str , scan_subst , scan_trans , scan_word , scope , search_const , sequence , sequence_num , sequence_tail , share_hek_flags , sighandler , simplify_sort , skipspace , skipspace0 , skipspace1 , skipspace2 , softref2xv , sortcv , sortcv_stacked , sortcv_xsub , space_join_names_mortal , start_force , stdize_locale , store_cop_label , strip_return , study_chunk , sub_crush_depth , sublex_done , sublex_push , sublex_start , sv_2iuv_common , sv_2iuv_non_preserve , sv_add_backref , sv_catxmlpvn , sv_catxmlsv , sv_del_backref , sv_dup_inc_multiple , sv_exp_grow , sv_free2 , sv_i_ncmp , sv_kill_backrefs , sv_ncmp , sv_pos_b2u_midway , sv_pos_u2b_cached , sv_pos_u2b_forwards , sv_pos_u2b_midway , sv_release_COW , sv_setsv_cow , sv_unglob , sv_xmlpeek , swallow_bom , swash_get , to_byte_substr , to_utf8_substr , token_free , token_getmad , tokenize_use , tokeq , tokereport , too_few_arguments , too_many_arguments , uiv_2buf , unpack_rec , unshare_hek , unshare_hek_or_pvn , unwind_handler_stack , update_debugger_info , usage , utf16_textfilter , utf8_mg_pos_cache_update , utilize , validate_suid , varname , vdie , vdie_common , vdie_croak_common , visit , vivify_defelem , vivify_ref , wait4pid , watch , write_no_mem , write_to_stderr , xmldump_all , xmldump_all_perl , xmldump_attr , xmldump_eval , xmldump_form , xmldump_indent , xmldump_packsubs , xmldump_packsubs_perl , xmldump_sub , xmldump_sub_perl , xmldump_vindent , yyerror , yylex , yyparse , yywarn

AUTHORS
SEE ALSO

perliol - C API for Perl's implementation of IO in Layers.

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
History and Background
Basic Structure
Layers vs Disciplines
Data Structures
Functions and Attributes
Per-instance Data
Layers in action.
Per-instance flag bits

PERLIO_F_EOF, PERLIO_F_CANWRITE, PERLIO_F_CANREAD, PERLIO_F_ERROR, PERLIO_F_TRUNCATE, PERLIO_F_APPEND, PERLIO_F_CRLF, PERLIO_F_UTF8, PERLIO_F_UNBUF, PERLIO_F_WRBUF, PERLIO_F_RDBUF, PERLIO_F_LINEBUF, PERLIO_F_TEMP, PERLIO_F_OPEN, PERLIO_F_FASTGETS

Methods in Detail

fsize, name, size, kind, PERLIO_K_BUFFERED, PERLIO_K_RAW, PERLIO_K_CANCRLF, PERLIO_K_FASTGETS, PERLIO_K_MULTIARG, Pushed, Popped, Open, Binmode, Getarg, Fileno, Dup, Read, Write, Seek, Tell, Close, Flush, Fill, Eof, Error, Clearerr, Setlinebuf, Get_base, Get_bufsiz, Get_ptr, Get_cnt, Set_ptrcnt

Utilities
Implementing PerlIO Layers

C implementations, Perl implementations

Core Layers

"unix", "perlio", "stdio", "crlf", "mmap", "pending", "raw", "utf8"

Extension Layers

":encoding", ":scalar", ":via"

TODO

perlapio - perl's IO abstraction interface.

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

1. USE_STDIO, 2. USE_SFIO, 3. USE_PERLIO, PerlIO_stdin(), PerlIO_stdout(), PerlIO_stderr(), PerlIO_open(path, mode), PerlIO_fdopen(fd,mode), PerlIO_reopen(path,mode,f), PerlIO_printf(f,fmt,...), PerlIO_vprintf(f,fmt,a), PerlIO_stdoutf(fmt,...), PerlIO_read(f,buf,count), PerlIO_write(f,buf,count), PerlIO_close(f), PerlIO_puts(f,s), PerlIO_putc(f,c), PerlIO_ungetc(f,c), PerlIO_getc(f), PerlIO_eof(f), PerlIO_error(f), PerlIO_fileno(f), PerlIO_clearerr(f), PerlIO_flush(f), PerlIO_seek(f,offset,whence), PerlIO_tell(f), PerlIO_getpos(f,p), PerlIO_setpos(f,p), PerlIO_rewind(f), PerlIO_tmpfile(), PerlIO_setlinebuf(f)

Co-existence with stdio

PerlIO_importFILE(f,mode), PerlIO_exportFILE(f,mode), PerlIO_releaseFILE(p,f), PerlIO_findFILE(f)

"Fast gets" Functions

PerlIO_fast_gets(f), PerlIO_has_cntptr(f), PerlIO_get_cnt(f), PerlIO_get_ptr(f), PerlIO_set_ptrcnt(f,p,c), PerlIO_canset_cnt(f), PerlIO_set_cnt(f,c), PerlIO_has_base(f), PerlIO_get_base(f), PerlIO_get_bufsiz(f)

Other Functions

PerlIO_apply_layers(f,mode,layers), PerlIO_binmode(f,ptype,imode,layers), '<' read, '>' write, '+' read/write, PerlIO_debug(fmt,...)

perlhack - How to hack at the Perl internals

DESCRIPTION

Does concept match the general goals of Perl?, Where is the implementation?, Backwards compatibility, Could it be a module instead?, Is the feature generic enough?, Does it potentially introduce new bugs?, Does it preclude other desirable features?, Is the implementation robust?, Is the implementation generic enough to be portable?, Is the implementation tested?, Is there enough documentation?, Is there another way to do it?, Does it create too much work?, Patches speak louder than words

Keeping in sync
Perlbug administration
Submitting patches

perlguts, perlxstut and perlxs, perlapi, Porting/pumpkin.pod, The perl5-porters FAQ

Finding Your Way Around

Core modules, Tests, Documentation, Configure, Interpreter

Elements of the interpreter

Startup, Parsing, Optimization, Running, Exception handing

Internal Variable Types
Op Trees
Stacks

Argument stack, Mark stack, Save stack

Millions of Macros
The .i Targets
SOURCE CODE STATIC ANALYSIS
lint, splint
Coverity
cpd (cut-and-paste detector)
gcc warnings
Warnings of other C compilers
DEBUGGING
Poking at Perl
Using a source-level debugger

run [args], break function_name, break source.c:xxx, step, next, continue, finish, 'enter', print

gdb macro support
Dumping Perl Data Structures
Patching
Patching a core module
Adding a new function to the core
Writing a test

t/base/, t/cmd/, t/comp/, t/io/, t/lib/, t/mro/, t/op/, t/re/, t/run/, t/uni/, t/win32/, t/x2p, t/base t/comp, t/cmd t/run t/io t/op, t/lib ext lib

Special Make Test Targets

coretest, test.deparse, test.taintwarn, minitest, test.valgrind check.valgrind utest.valgrind ucheck.valgrind, test.third check.third utest.third ucheck.third, test.torture torturetest, utest ucheck test.utf8 check.utf8, minitest.utf16 test.utf16, test_harness, Parallel tests

Running tests by hand

-v, -torture, -re=PATTERN, -re LIST OF PATTERNS, PERL_CORE=1, PERL_DESTRUCT_LEVEL=2, PERL, PERL_SKIP_TTY_TEST, PERL_TEST_Net_Ping, PERL_TEST_NOVREXX, PERL_TEST_NUMCONVERTS

Common problems when patching Perl source code
Perl environment problems
Portability problems
Problematic System Interfaces
Security problems
EXTERNAL TOOLS FOR DEBUGGING PERL
Rational Software's Purify
Purify on Unix

-Accflags=-DPURIFY, -Doptimize='-g', -Uusemymalloc, -Dusemultiplicity

Purify on NT

DEFINES, USE_MULTI = define, #PERL_MALLOC = define, CFG = Debug

valgrind
Compaq's/Digital's/HP's Third Degree
PERL_DESTRUCT_LEVEL
PERL_MEM_LOG
Profiling
Gprof Profiling

-a, -b, -e routine, -f routine, -s, -z

GCC gcov Profiling
Pixie Profiling

-h, -l, -p[rocedures], -h[eavy], -i[nvocations], -l[ines], -testcoverage, -z[ero]

Miscellaneous tricks
CONCLUSION

The Road goes ever on and on, down from the door where it began.

Metaphoric Quotations
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO
DESCRIPTION
CONTRIBUTED MODULES
A Social Contract about Artistic Control

The version of the module in the core should still be considered the work of the original author. All patches, bug reports, and so forth should be fed back to them. Their development directions should be respected whenever possible

CREDITS

perlrepository - Using the Perl source repository

SYNOPSIS
GETTING ACCESS TO THE REPOSITORY
READ ACCESS VIA THE WEB
READ ACCESS VIA GIT
WRITE ACCESS TO THE REPOSITORY
A NOTE ON CAMEL AND DROMEDARY
OVERVIEW OF THE REPOSITORY
FINDING OUT YOUR STATUS
SUBMITTING A PATCH
Using git to send patch emails
A note on derived files
Getting your patch accepted

Commit message, What, Why, How, Comments, Comments, Comments, Style, Testsuite

ACCEPTING A PATCH
CLEANING A WORKING DIRECTORY
BISECTING
SUBMITTING A PATCH VIA GITHUB
MERGING FROM A BRANCH VIA GITHUB
TOPIC BRANCHES AND REWRITING HISTORY
COMMITTING TO MAINTENANCE VERSIONS
GRAFTS
SEE ALSO

perlbook - Perl book information

DESCRIPTION

perlcommunity - a brief overview of the Perl community

DESCRIPTION
Where to find the community
Mailing lists and Newsgroups
IRC
Websites

http://perl.com/, http://use.perl.org/, http://www.perlmonks.org/

User Groups
Workshops
Hackathons
Conventions
Calendar of Perl Events
AUTHOR

perltodo - Perl TO-DO List

DESCRIPTION
Tasks that only need Perl knowledge
Improve Porting/cmpVERSION.pl to work from git tags
Migrate t/ from custom TAP generation
Test that regen.pl was run
Automate perldelta generation

Modules and Pragmata, New Documentation, New Tests

Remove duplication of test setup.
POD -> HTML conversion in the core still sucks
Make ExtUtils::ParseXS use strict;
Make Schwern poorer
Improve the coverage of the core tests
test B
A decent benchmark
fix tainting bugs
Dual life everything
Move dual-life pod/*.PL into ext
POSIX memory footprint
embed.pl/makedef.pl
use strict; and AutoLoad
profile installman
enable lexical enabling/disabling of inidvidual warnings
Tasks that need a little sysadmin-type knowledge
make HTML install work
compressed man pages
Add a code coverage target to the Makefile
Make Config.pm cope with differences between built and installed perl
linker specification files
Cross-compile support
roffitall
Split "linker" from "compiler"

cc (in cc.U), ld (in dlsrc.U)

Configure Windows using PowerShell
decouple -g and -DDEBUGGING
Tasks that need a little C knowledge
Weed out needless PERL_UNUSED_ARG
Modernize the order of directories in @INC
-Duse32bit*
Profile Perl - am I hot or not?
Allocate OPs from arenas
Improve win32/wince.c
Use secure CRT functions when building with VC8 on Win32
Fix POSIX::access() and chdir() on Win32
strcat(), strcpy(), strncat(), strncpy(), sprintf(), vsprintf()
-D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2, -fstack-protector
Arenas for GPs? For MAGIC?
Shared arenas
Tasks that need a knowledge of XS
Write an XS cookbook
Allow XSUBs to inline themselves as OPs
Remove the use of SVs as temporaries in dump.c
safely supporting POSIX SA_SIGINFO
autovivification
Unicode in Filenames
Unicode in %ENV
Unicode and glob()
use less 'memory'
Re-implement :unique in a way that is actually thread-safe
Make tainting consistent
readpipe(LIST)
Audit the code for destruction ordering assumptions
Extend PerlIO and PerlIO::Scalar
-C on the #! line
Organize error messages
Tasks that need a knowledge of the interpreter
forbid labels with keyword names
truncate() prototype
decapsulation of smart match argument
error reporting of [$a ; $b]
lexicals used only once
UTF-8 revamp
Properly Unicode safe tokeniser and pads.
state variable initialization in list context
Implement $value ~~ 0 .. $range
A does() built-in
Tied filehandles and write() don't mix
Propagate compilation hints to the debugger
Attach/detach debugger from running program
LVALUE functions for lists
regexp optimiser optional
delete &function
/w regex modifier
optional optimizer
You WANT *how* many
lexical aliases
entersub XS vs Perl
Self-ties
Optimize away @_
Virtualize operating system access
Investigate PADTMP hash pessimisation
Store the current pad in the OP slab allocator
repack the optree
eliminate incorrect line numbers in warnings
optimize tail-calls
Big projects
make ithreads more robust
iCOW
(?{...}) closures in regexps
A re-entrant regexp engine
Add class set operations to regexp engine
Tasks for microperl
make creating uconfig.sh automatic
make creating Makefile.micro automatic
do away with fork/exec/wait?
some of the uconfig.sh really needs to be probed (using cc) in buildtime:

perldoc - Look up Perl documentation in Pod format.

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
OPTIONS

-h, -D, -t, -u, -m module, -l, -F, -f perlfunc, -q perlfaq-search-regexp, -v perlvar, -T, -d destination-filename, -o output-formatname, -M module-name, -w option:value or -w option, -X, -L language_code, PageName|ModuleName|ProgramName, -n some-formatter, -r, -i, -V

SECURITY
ENVIRONMENT
CHANGES
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

perlhist - the Perl history records

DESCRIPTION
INTRODUCTION
THE KEEPERS OF THE PUMPKIN
PUMPKIN?
THE RECORDS
SELECTED RELEASE SIZES
SELECTED PATCH SIZES
THE KEEPERS OF THE RECORDS

perl5120delta - what is new for perl v5.12.0

DESCRIPTION
Core Enhancements
New package NAME VERSION syntax
The ... operator
Implicit strictures
Unicode improvements
Y2038 compliance
qr overloading
Pluggable keywords
APIs for more internals
Overridable function lookup
A proper interface for pluggable Method Resolution Orders
\N experimental regex escape
DTrace support
Support for configure_requires in CPAN module metadata
each is now more flexible
when as a statement modifier
$, flexibility
// in when clauses
Enabling warnings from your shell environment
delete local
New support for Abstract namespace sockets
32-bit limit on substr arguments removed
Potentially Incompatible Changes
Deprecations warn by default
Version number formats
@INC reorganization
REGEXPs are now first class
Switch statement changes

flip-flop operators, defined-or operator

Smart match changes
Other potentially incompatible changes
Deprecations

suidperl, Use of := to mean an empty attribute list, UNIVERSAL->import(), Use of "goto" to jump into a construct, Custom character names in \N{name} that don't look like names, Deprecated Modules, Class::ISA, Pod::Plainer, Shell, Switch, Assignment to $[, Use of the attribute :locked on subroutines, Use of "locked" with the attributes pragma, Use of "unique" with the attributes pragma, Perl_pmflag, Numerous Perl 4-era libraries

Unicode overhaul
Modules and Pragmata
New Modules and Pragmata

autodie, Compress::Raw::Bzip2, overloading, parent, Parse::CPAN::Meta, VMS::DCLsym, VMS::Stdio, XS::APItest::KeywordRPN

Updated Pragmata

base, bignum, charnames, constant, diagnostics, feature, less, lib, mro, overload, threads, threads::shared, version, warnings

Updated Modules

Archive::Extract, Archive::Tar, Attribute::Handlers, AutoLoader, B::Concise, B::Debug, B::Deparse, B::Lint, CGI, Class::ISA, Compress::Raw::Zlib, CPAN, CPANPLUS, CPANPLUS::Dist::Build, Data::Dumper, DB_File, Devel::PPPort, Digest, Digest::MD5, Digest::SHA, Encode, Exporter, ExtUtils::CBuilder, ExtUtils::Command, ExtUtils::Constant, ExtUtils::Install, ExtUtils::MakeMaker, ExtUtils::Manifest, ExtUtils::ParseXS, File::Fetch, File::Path, File::Temp, Filter::Simple, Filter::Util::Call, Getopt::Long, IO, IO::Zlib, IPC::Cmd, IPC::SysV, Locale::Maketext, Locale::Maketext::Simple, Log::Message, Log::Message::Simple, Math::BigInt, Math::BigInt::FastCalc, Math::BigRat, Math::Complex, Memoize, MIME::Base64, Module::Build, Module::CoreList, Module::Load, Module::Load::Conditional, Module::Loaded, Module::Pluggable, Net::Ping, NEXT, Object::Accessor, Package::Constants, PerlIO, Pod::Parser, Pod::Perldoc, Pod::Plainer, Pod::Simple, Safe, SelfLoader, Storable, Switch, Sys::Syslog, Term::ANSIColor, Term::UI, Test, Test::Harness, Test::Simple, Text::Balanced, Text::ParseWords, Text::Soundex, Thread::Queue, Thread::Semaphore, Tie::RefHash, Time::HiRes, Time::Local, Time::Piece, Unicode::Collate, Unicode::Normalize, Win32, Win32API::File, XSLoader

Removed Modules and Pragmata

attrs, CPAN::API::HOWTO, CPAN::DeferedCode, CPANPLUS::inc, DCLsym, ExtUtils::MakeMaker::bytes, ExtUtils::MakeMaker::vmsish, Stdio, Test::Harness::Assert, Test::Harness::Iterator, Test::Harness::Point, Test::Harness::Results, Test::Harness::Straps, Test::Harness::Util, XSSymSet

Deprecated Modules and Pragmata
Documentation
New Documentation
Changes to Existing Documentation
Selected Performance Enhancements
Installation and Configuration Improvements
Internal Changes
Testing
Testing improvements

Parallel tests, Test harness flexibility, Test watchdog

New Tests
New or Changed Diagnostics
New Diagnostics
Changed Diagnostics

Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s, Prototype after '%c' for %s : %s

Utility Changes
Selected Bug Fixes
Platform Specific Changes
New Platforms

Haiku, MirOS BSD

Discontinued Platforms

Domain/OS, MiNT, Tenon MachTen

Updated Platforms

AIX, Cygwin, Darwin (Mac OS X), DragonFly BSD, FreeBSD, Irix, NetBSD, OpenVMS, Stratus VOS, Symbian, Windows

Known Problems
Errata
Acknowledgements
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perldelta, perl5120delta - what is new for perl v5.12.0

DESCRIPTION
Core Enhancements
New package NAME VERSION syntax
The ... operator
Implicit strictures
Unicode improvements
Y2038 compliance
qr overloading
Pluggable keywords
APIs for more internals
Overridable function lookup
A proper interface for pluggable Method Resolution Orders
\N experimental regex escape
DTrace support
Support for configure_requires in CPAN module metadata
each is now more flexible
when as a statement modifier
$, flexibility
// in when clauses
Enabling warnings from your shell environment
delete local
New support for Abstract namespace sockets
32-bit limit on substr arguments removed
Potentially Incompatible Changes
Deprecations warn by default
Version number formats
@INC reorganization
REGEXPs are now first class
Switch statement changes

flip-flop operators, defined-or operator

Smart match changes
Other potentially incompatible changes
Deprecations

suidperl, Use of := to mean an empty attribute list, UNIVERSAL->import(), Use of "goto" to jump into a construct, Custom character names in \N{name} that don't look like names, Deprecated Modules, Class::ISA, Pod::Plainer, Shell, Switch, Assignment to $[, Use of the attribute :locked on subroutines, Use of "locked" with the attributes pragma, Use of "unique" with the attributes pragma, Perl_pmflag, Numerous Perl 4-era libraries

Unicode overhaul
Modules and Pragmata
New Modules and Pragmata

autodie, Compress::Raw::Bzip2, overloading, parent, Parse::CPAN::Meta, VMS::DCLsym, VMS::Stdio, XS::APItest::KeywordRPN

Updated Pragmata

base, bignum, charnames, constant, diagnostics, feature, less, lib, mro, overload, threads, threads::shared, version, warnings

Updated Modules

Archive::Extract, Archive::Tar, Attribute::Handlers, AutoLoader, B::Concise, B::Debug, B::Deparse, B::Lint, CGI, Class::ISA, Compress::Raw::Zlib, CPAN, CPANPLUS, CPANPLUS::Dist::Build, Data::Dumper, DB_File, Devel::PPPort, Digest, Digest::MD5, Digest::SHA, Encode, Exporter, ExtUtils::CBuilder, ExtUtils::Command, ExtUtils::Constant, ExtUtils::Install, ExtUtils::MakeMaker, ExtUtils::Manifest, ExtUtils::ParseXS, File::Fetch, File::Path, File::Temp, Filter::Simple, Filter::Util::Call, Getopt::Long, IO, IO::Zlib, IPC::Cmd, IPC::SysV, Locale::Maketext, Locale::Maketext::Simple, Log::Message, Log::Message::Simple, Math::BigInt, Math::BigInt::FastCalc, Math::BigRat, Math::Complex, Memoize, MIME::Base64, Module::Build, Module::CoreList, Module::Load, Module::Load::Conditional, Module::Loaded, Module::Pluggable, Net::Ping, NEXT, Object::Accessor, Package::Constants, PerlIO, Pod::Parser, Pod::Perldoc, Pod::Plainer, Pod::Simple, Safe, SelfLoader, Storable, Switch, Sys::Syslog, Term::ANSIColor, Term::UI, Test, Test::Harness, Test::Simple, Text::Balanced, Text::ParseWords, Text::Soundex, Thread::Queue, Thread::Semaphore, Tie::RefHash, Time::HiRes, Time::Local, Time::Piece, Unicode::Collate, Unicode::Normalize, Win32, Win32API::File, XSLoader

Removed Modules and Pragmata

attrs, CPAN::API::HOWTO, CPAN::DeferedCode, CPANPLUS::inc, DCLsym, ExtUtils::MakeMaker::bytes, ExtUtils::MakeMaker::vmsish, Stdio, Test::Harness::Assert, Test::Harness::Iterator, Test::Harness::Point, Test::Harness::Results, Test::Harness::Straps, Test::Harness::Util, XSSymSet

Deprecated Modules and Pragmata
Documentation
New Documentation
Changes to Existing Documentation
Selected Performance Enhancements
Installation and Configuration Improvements
Internal Changes
Testing
Testing improvements

Parallel tests, Test harness flexibility, Test watchdog

New Tests
New or Changed Diagnostics
New Diagnostics
Changed Diagnostics

Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s, Prototype after '%c' for %s : %s

Utility Changes
Selected Bug Fixes
Platform Specific Changes
New Platforms

Haiku, MirOS BSD

Discontinued Platforms

Domain/OS, MiNT, Tenon MachTen

Updated Platforms

AIX, Cygwin, Darwin (Mac OS X), DragonFly BSD, FreeBSD, Irix, NetBSD, OpenVMS, Stratus VOS, Symbian, Windows

Known Problems
Errata
Acknowledgements
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl5115delta - what is new for perl v5.11.5

DESCRIPTION
Core Enhancements
32-bit limit on substr arguments removed
Modules and Pragmata
Pragmata Changes

version

Updated Modules

B::Debug, CPAN, CPANPLUS::Dist::Build, Pod::Perldoc, Pod::Plainer, Safe, Socket, podlators

Changes to Existing Documentation
Installation and Configuration Improvements
Configuration improvements
Selected Bug Fixes
New or Changed Diagnostics
New Tests

t/op/filehandle.t, t/op/time_loop.t

Known Problems
Acknowledgements
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl5114delta - what is new for perl v5.11.4

DESCRIPTION
Incompatible Changes
Version number formats
Core Enhancements
Unicode properties
Modules and Pragmata
Pragmata Changes

less, version, warnings

Updated Modules

Archive::Extract, B::Deparse, Compress::Raw::Bzip2, Compress::Raw::Zlib, CPAN, File::Fetch, Module::Build, Safe

Removed Modules and Pragmata

Devel::DProf::V

Changes to Existing Documentation
Configuration improvements
Platform Specific Changes

VMS

Selected Bug Fixes
New or Changed Diagnostics

New warning category illegalproto, lvalue attribute ignored after the subroutine has been defined

Changed Internals
Known Problems
Deprecations

UNIVERSAL->import()

Acknowledgements
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl5113delta - what is new for perl v5.11.3

DESCRIPTION
Incompatible Changes
Filehandles are blessed directly into IO::Handle, as FileHandle is merely a wrapper around IO::Handle.
Core Enhancements
Unicode version
Unicode properties
Regular Expressions
Modules and Pragmata
Pragmata Changes

constant, diagnostics, feature, legacy, threads, warnings

Updated Modules

Archive::Extract, CPAN, CPANPLUS, Encode, ExtUtils::MakeMaker, File::Path, Module::Build, Module::CoreList, POSIX, Pod::Simple, Safe

Utility Changes

perlbug

Changes to Existing Documentation
Installation and Configuration Improvements
Testing improvements

It's now possible to override PERL5OPT and friends in t/TEST

Platform Specific Changes

Win32, cygwin, Enable IPv6 support on cygwin 1.7 and newer, OpenVMS, Make -UDEBUGGING the default on VMS for 5.12.0

Selected Bug Fixes
New or Changed Diagnostics
New Tests

t/comp/final_line_num.t, t/comp/form_scope.t, t/comp/line_debug.t, t/op/filetest_t.t, t/op/qr.t, t/op/utf8cache.t, t/re/uniprops.t

Deprecations

Use of "goto" to jump into a construct is deprecated

Acknowledgements
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl5112delta - what is new for perl v5.11.2

DESCRIPTION
Core Enhancements
qr overloading
Pluggable keywords
APIs for more internals
Overridable function lookup
Modules and Pragmata
New Modules and Pragmata

legacy

Pragmata Changes

diagnostics, overload

Updated Modules

B::Concise, B::Deparse, Carp, Compress::Zlib, CPANPLUS, Encode, ExtUtils::CBuilder, Env, File::Fetch, I8N::Langinfo, I8N::LangTags, IO::Compress, IPC::Cmd, List::Util, Locale::Maketext, Module::Build, Module::CoreList, Pod::Simple, Scalar::Util, Switch

Utility Changes

a2p

Performance Enhancements
New or Changed Diagnostics

Bad plugin affecting keyword '%s', gmtime(%.0f) too large, Lexing code attempted to stuff non-Latin-1 character into Latin-1 input, Lexing code internal error (%s), localtime(%.0f) too large, Overloaded dereference did not return a reference, Overloaded qr did not return a REGEXP, Perl_pmflag() is deprecated, and will be removed from the XS API, Runaway format

Changed Internals
New Tests

t/op/while_readdir.t

Known Problems

Known test failures on VMS

Deprecations
Use of := to mean an empty attribute list is now deprecated.
Acknowledgements
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl5111delta - what is new for perl v5.11.1

DESCRIPTION
Incompatible Changes
Core Enhancements
Add package NAME VERSION syntax
Modules and Pragmata
Updated Modules
New Documentation
Changes to Existing Documentation

Documentation for $1 in perlvar.pod clarified

Performance Enhancements

if (%foo) has been optimized to be faster than if (keys %foo)

Platform Specific Notes

Darwin (Mac OS X), DragonFly BSD, Win32

Selected Bug Fixes
New or Changed Diagnostics
Testing
Known Problems

Untriaged test crashes on Windows 2000, Known test failures on VMS

Errata for 5.11.0

The Perl 5.11.0 release notes incorrectly described 'delete local'

Acknowledgements
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl5110delta - what is new for perl v5.11.0

DESCRIPTION
Incompatible Changes
Unicode interpretation of \w, \d, \s, and the POSIX character classes redefined.
@INC reorganization
Switch statement changes

flip-flop operators, defined-or operator

Smart match changes
Labels can't be keywords
Other incompatible changes
Core Enhancements
Unicode Character Database 5.1.0
A proper interface for pluggable Method Resolution Orders
The overloading pragma
\N regex escape
Implicit strictures
Parallel tests
The ... operator
DTrace support
Support for configure_requires in CPAN module metadata
each is now more flexible
Y2038 compliance
$, flexibility
// in where clauses
Enabling warnings from your shell environment
delete local
New support for Abstract namespace sockets
Modules and Pragmata
Dual-lifed modules moved
New Modules and Pragmata

autodie, Compress::Raw::Bzip2, parent, Parse::CPAN::Meta

Pragmata Changes

overloading, attrs, charnames, feature, mro

Updated Modules

ExtUtils::MakeMaker, Test::Harness, UNIVERSAL

Utility Changes

h2ph, h2xs, perl5db.pl, perlbug, perlthanks

New Documentation

perlhaiku, perlmroapi, perlperf, perlrepository

Changes to Existing Documentation
Performance Enhancements
Installation and Configuration Improvements
ext/ reorganisation
Configuration improvements
Compilation improvements
Platform Specific Changes

AIX, Cygwin, DomainOS, FreeBSD, Irix, Haiku, MachTen, MiNT, MirOS BSD, NetBSD, Stratus VOS, Symbian, Win32, VMS

Selected Bug Fixes
New or Changed Diagnostics

panic: sv_chop %s, Can't locate package %s for the parents of %s, v-string in use/require is non-portable, Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"

Changed Internals

SVf_UTF8, SVs_TEMP

New Tests

t/comp/retainedlines.t, t/io/perlio_fail.t, t/io/perlio_leaks.t, t/io/perlio_open.t, t/io/perlio.t, t/io/pvbm.t, t/mro/package_aliases.t, t/op/dbm.t, t/op/index_thr.t, t/op/pat_thr.t, t/op/qr_gc.t, t/op/reg_email_thr.t, t/op/regexp_qr_embed_thr.t, t/op/regexp_unicode_prop.t, t/op/regexp_unicode_prop_thr.t, t/op/reg_nc_tie.t, t/op/reg_posixcc.t, t/op/re.t, t/op/setpgrpstack.t, t/op/substr_thr.t, t/op/upgrade.t, t/uni/lex_utf8.t, t/uni/tie.t

Known Problems
Deprecations
Acknowledgements
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl5101delta - what is new for perl v5.10.1

DESCRIPTION
Incompatible Changes
Switch statement changes

flip-flop operators, defined-or operator

Smart match changes
Other incompatible changes
Core Enhancements
Unicode Character Database 5.1.0
A proper interface for pluggable Method Resolution Orders
The overloading pragma
Parallel tests
DTrace support
Support for configure_requires in CPAN module metadata
Modules and Pragmata
New Modules and Pragmata

autodie, Compress::Raw::Bzip2, parent, Parse::CPAN::Meta

Pragmata Changes

attributes, attrs, base, bigint, bignum, bigrat, charnames, constant, feature, fields, lib, open, overload, overloading, version

Updated Modules

Archive::Extract, Archive::Tar, Attribute::Handlers, AutoLoader, AutoSplit, B, B::Debug, B::Deparse, B::Lint, B::Xref, Benchmark, Carp, CGI, Compress::Zlib, CPAN, CPANPLUS, CPANPLUS::Dist::Build, Cwd, Data::Dumper, DB, DB_File, Devel::PPPort, Digest::MD5, Digest::SHA, DirHandle, Dumpvalue, DynaLoader, Encode, Errno, Exporter, ExtUtils::CBuilder, ExtUtils::Command, ExtUtils::Constant, ExtUtils::Embed, ExtUtils::Install, ExtUtils::MakeMaker, ExtUtils::Manifest, ExtUtils::ParseXS, Fatal, File::Basename, File::Compare, File::Copy, File::Fetch, File::Find, File::Path, File::Spec, File::stat, File::Temp, FileCache, FileHandle, Filter::Simple, Filter::Util::Call, FindBin, GDBM_File, Getopt::Long, Hash::Util::FieldHash, I18N::Collate, IO, IO::Compress::*, IO::Dir, IO::Handle, IO::Socket, IO::Zlib, IPC::Cmd, IPC::Open3, IPC::SysV, lib, List::Util, Locale::MakeText, Log::Message, Math::BigFloat, Math::BigInt, Math::BigInt::FastCalc, Math::BigRat, Math::Complex, Math::Trig, Memoize, Module::Build, Module::CoreList, Module::Load, Module::Load::Conditional, Module::Loaded, Module::Pluggable, NDBM_File, Net::Ping, NEXT, Object::Accessor, OS2::REXX, Package::Constants, PerlIO, PerlIO::via, Pod::Man, Pod::Parser, Pod::Simple, Pod::Text, POSIX, Safe, Scalar::Util, SelectSaver, SelfLoader, Socket, Storable, Switch, Symbol, Sys::Syslog, Term::ANSIColor, Term::ReadLine, Term::UI, Test::Harness, Test::Simple, Text::ParseWords, Text::Tabs, Text::Wrap, Thread::Queue, Thread::Semaphore, threads, threads::shared, Tie::RefHash, Tie::StdHandle, Time::HiRes, Time::Local, Time::Piece, Unicode::Normalize, Unicode::UCD, UNIVERSAL, Win32, Win32API::File, XSLoader

Utility Changes

h2ph, h2xs, perl5db.pl, perlthanks

New Documentation

perlhaiku, perlmroapi, perlperf, perlrepository, perlthanks

Changes to Existing Documentation
Performance Enhancements
Installation and Configuration Improvements
ext/ reorganisation
Configuration improvements
Compilation improvements
Platform Specific Changes

AIX, Cygwin, FreeBSD, Irix, Haiku, MirOS BSD, NetBSD, Stratus VOS, Symbian, Win32, VMS

Selected Bug Fixes
New or Changed Diagnostics

panic: sv_chop %s, Can't locate package %s for the parents of %s, v-string in use/require is non-portable, Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"

Changed Internals

SVf_UTF8, SVs_TEMP

New Tests

t/comp/retainedlines.t, t/io/perlio_fail.t, t/io/perlio_leaks.t, t/io/perlio_open.t, t/io/perlio.t, t/io/pvbm.t, t/mro/package_aliases.t, t/op/dbm.t, t/op/index_thr.t, t/op/pat_thr.t, t/op/qr_gc.t, t/op/reg_email_thr.t, t/op/regexp_qr_embed_thr.t, t/op/regexp_unicode_prop.t, t/op/regexp_unicode_prop_thr.t, t/op/reg_nc_tie.t, t/op/reg_posixcc.t, t/op/re.t, t/op/setpgrpstack.t, t/op/substr_thr.t, t/op/upgrade.t, t/uni/lex_utf8.t, t/uni/tie.t

Known Problems
Deprecations
Acknowledgements
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl5100delta - what is new for perl 5.10.0

DESCRIPTION
Core Enhancements
The feature pragma
New -E command-line switch
Defined-or operator
Switch and Smart Match operator
Regular expressions

Recursive Patterns, Named Capture Buffers, Possessive Quantifiers, Backtracking control verbs, Relative backreferences, \K escape, Vertical and horizontal whitespace, and linebreak

say()
Lexical $_
The _ prototype
UNITCHECK blocks
New Pragma, mro
readdir() may return a "short filename" on Windows
readpipe() is now overridable
Default argument for readline()
state() variables
Stacked filetest operators
UNIVERSAL::DOES()
Formats
Byte-order modifiers for pack() and unpack()
no VERSION
chdir, chmod and chown on filehandles
OS groups
Recursive sort subs
Exceptions in constant folding
Source filters in @INC
New internal variables

${^RE_DEBUG_FLAGS}, ${^CHILD_ERROR_NATIVE}, ${^RE_TRIE_MAXBUF}, ${^WIN32_SLOPPY_STAT}

Miscellaneous
UCD 5.0.0
MAD
kill() on Windows
Incompatible Changes
Packing and UTF-8 strings
Byte/character count feature in unpack()
The $* and $# variables have been removed
substr() lvalues are no longer fixed-length
Parsing of -f _
:unique
Effect of pragmas in eval
chdir FOO
Handling of .pmc files
$^V is now a version object instead of a v-string
@- and @+ in patterns
$AUTOLOAD can now be tainted
Tainting and printf
undef and signal handlers
strictures and dereferencing in defined()
(?p{}) has been removed
Pseudo-hashes have been removed
Removal of the bytecode compiler and of perlcc
Removal of the JPL
Recursive inheritance detected earlier
warnings::enabled and warnings::warnif changed to favor users of modules
Modules and Pragmata
Upgrading individual core modules
Pragmata Changes

feature, mro, Scoping of the sort pragma, Scoping of bignum, bigint, bigrat, base, strict and warnings, version, warnings, less

New modules
Selected Changes to Core Modules

Attribute::Handlers, B::Lint, B, Thread

Utility Changes

perl -d, ptar, ptardiff, shasum, corelist, h2ph and h2xs, perlivp, find2perl, config_data, cpanp, cpan2dist, pod2html

New Documentation
Performance Enhancements
In-place sorting
Lexical array access
XS-assisted SWASHGET
Constant subroutines
PERL_DONT_CREATE_GVSV
Weak references are cheaper
sort() enhancements
Memory optimisations
UTF-8 cache optimisation
Sloppy stat on Windows
Regular expressions optimisations

Engine de-recursivised, Single char char-classes treated as literals, Trie optimisation of literal string alternations, Aho-Corasick start-point optimisation

Installation and Configuration Improvements
Configuration improvements

-Dusesitecustomize, Relocatable installations, strlcat() and strlcpy(), d_pseudofork and d_printf_format_null, Configure help

Compilation improvements

Parallel build, Borland's compilers support, Static build on Windows, ppport.h files, C++ compatibility, Support for Microsoft 64-bit compiler, Visual C++, Win32 builds

Installation improvements

Module auxiliary files

New Or Improved Platforms
Selected Bug Fixes

strictures in regexp-eval blocks, Calling CORE::require(), Subscripts of slices, no warnings 'category' works correctly with -w, threads improvements, chr() and negative values, PERL5SHELL and tainting, Using *FILE{IO}, Overloading and reblessing, Overloading and UTF-8, eval memory leaks fixed, Random device on Windows, PERLIO_DEBUG, PerlIO::scalar and read-only scalars, study() and UTF-8, Critical signals, @INC-hook fix, -t switch fix, Duping UTF-8 filehandles, Localisation of hash elements

New or Changed Diagnostics

Use of uninitialized value, Deprecated use of my() in false conditional, !=~ should be !~, Newline in left-justified string, Too late for "-T" option, "%s" variable %s masks earlier declaration, readdir()/closedir()/etc. attempted on invalid dirhandle, Opening dirhandle/filehandle %s also as a file/directory, Use of -P is deprecated, v-string in use/require is non-portable, perl -V

Changed Internals
Reordering of SVt_* constants
Elimination of SVt_PVBM
New type SVt_BIND
Removal of CPP symbols
Less space is used by ops
New parser
Use of const
Mathoms
AvFLAGS has been removed
av_* changes
$^H and %^H
B:: modules inheritance changed
Anonymous hash and array constructors
Known Problems
UTF-8 problems
Platform Specific Problems
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl595delta - what is new for perl v5.9.5

DESCRIPTION
Incompatible Changes
Tainting and printf
undef and signal handlers
strictures and array/hash dereferencing in defined()
(?p{}) has been removed
Pseudo-hashes have been removed
Removal of the bytecode compiler and of perlcc
Removal of the JPL
Recursive inheritance detected earlier
Core Enhancements
Regular expressions

Recursive Patterns, Named Capture Buffers, Possessive Quantifiers, Backtracking control verbs, Relative backreferences, \K escape, Vertical and horizontal whitespace, and linebreak

The _ prototype
UNITCHECK blocks
readpipe() is now overridable
default argument for readline()
UCD 5.0.0
Smart match
Implicit loading of feature
Modules and Pragmas
New Pragma, mro
bignum, bigint, bigrat
Math::BigInt/Math::BigFloat

config(), import(), roundmode common, bpi(), bcos(), bsin(), batan(), batan2(), bmuladd(), bexp(), bnok(), from_hex(), from_oct(), and from_bin(), as_oct()

New Core Modules
Module changes

assertions, base, strict and warnings, warnings, less, Attribute::Handlers, B::Lint, B, Thread

Utility Changes
cpanp
cpan2dist
pod2html
Documentation
New manpage, perlunifaq
Installation and Configuration Improvements
C++ compatibility
Visual C++
Static build on Win32
win32 builds
d_pseudofork and d_printf_format_null
Help
64bit systems
Ports
Selected Bug Fixes
New or Changed Diagnostics
Deprecations
Changed Internals
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl594delta - what is new for perl v5.9.4

DESCRIPTION
Incompatible Changes
chdir FOO
Handling of pmc files
@- and @+ in patterns
$AUTOLOAD can now be tainted
Core Enhancements
state() variables
UNIVERSAL::DOES()
Exceptions in constant folding
Source filters in @INC
MAD
Modules and Pragmas
New Core Modules
Utility Changes
config_data
Documentation
New manpage, perlpragma
New manpage, perlreguts
New manpage, perlunitut
Performance Enhancements
Memory optimisations
UTF-8 cache optimisation
Regular expressions

Engine de-recursivised, Single char char-classes treated as literals, Trie optimisation of literal string alternations, Aho-Corasick start-point optimisation

Sloppy stat on Windows
Installation and Configuration Improvements
Relocatable installations
Ports
Compilation improvements
New probes
Windows build improvements

Building XS extensions, Support for 64-bit compiler

Selected Bug Fixes
PERL5SHELL and tainting
Using *FILE{IO}
Overloading and reblessing
Overloading and UTF-8
eval memory leaks fixed
Random device on Windows
New or Changed Diagnostics

State variable %s will be reinitialized

Changed Internals
Known Problems
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl593delta - what is new for perl v5.9.3

DESCRIPTION
Incompatible Changes
Parsing of -f _
mkdir()
Magic goto and eval
$# has been removed
:unique
Scoping of the sort pragma
Core Enhancements
The feature pragma
Switch and Smart Match operator
say()
CLONE_SKIP()
${^CHILD_ERROR_NATIVE}
Assertions
Unicode Character Database 4.1.0
no VERSION
Recursive sort subs
Effect of pragmas in eval
New -E command-line switch
chdir, chmod and chown on filehandles
OS groups
Modules and Pragmata
New Core Modules
Utility Changes
ptar
ptardiff
shasum
h2xs enhancements
perlivp enhancements
Documentation
Perl Glossary
Performance Enhancements
XS-assisted SWASHGET
Constant subroutines
PERL_DONT_CREATE_GVSV
Weak references are cheaper
sort() enhancements
Installation and Configuration Improvements
Compilation improvements
New Or Improved Platforms
New probes
Module auxiliary files
Selected Bug Fixes
defined $$x
Calling CORE::require()
Subscripts of slices
Remove over-optimisation
sprintf() fixes
no warnings 'category' works correctly with -w
Smaller fixes
More Unicode Fixes
New or Changed Diagnostics
Attempt to set length of freed array
Non-string passed as bitmask
Search pattern not terminated or ternary operator parsed as search pattern
"%s" variable %s masks earlier declaration
readdir()/closedir()/etc. attempted on invalid dirhandle
Changed Internals
B:: modules inheritance changed
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl592delta - what is new for perl v5.9.2

DESCRIPTION
Incompatible Changes
Packing and UTF-8 strings
Miscellaneous
Core Enhancements
Malloc wrapping
Unicode Character Database 4.0.1
suidperl less insecure
PERLIO_DEBUG
Formats
Unicode Character Classes
Byte-order modifiers for pack() and unpack()
Byte count feature in pack()
New variables
Modules and Pragmata
New modules
Updated And Improved Modules and Pragmata

B::Concise, Socket, Sys::Syslog, threads

Utility Changes
Performance Enhancements
Installation and Configuration Improvements
Selected Bug Fixes
New or Changed Diagnostics
Changed Internals
Known Problems
Plans for the next release
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl591delta - what is new for perl v5.9.1

DESCRIPTION
Incompatible Changes
substr() lvalues are no longer fixed-length
The :unique attribute is only meaningful for globals
Core Enhancements
Lexical $_
Tied hashes in scalar context
Formats
Stacked filetest operators
Modules and Pragmata

Benchmark, Carp, Exporter, FindBin, List::Util, threads::shared

Utility Changes
Documentation
Performance Enhancements
Selected Bug Fixes
UTF-8 bugs
Threading bugs
More bugs
New or Changed Diagnostics
Changed Internals
Reordering of SVt_* constants
Removal of CPP symbols
Less space is used by ops
New parser
Configuration and Building
Known Problems
Platform Specific Problems
To-do for perl 5.10.0
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl590delta - what is new for perl v5.9.0

DESCRIPTION
Incompatible Changes
Hash Randomisation
UTF-8 On Filehandles No Longer Activated By Locale
Single-number v-strings are no longer v-strings before "=>"
(Win32) The -C Switch Has Been Repurposed
(Win32) The /d Switch Of cmd.exe
The $* variable has been removed
Core Enhancements
Assertions
Defined-or operators
UTF-8 no longer default under UTF-8 locales
Unsafe signals again available
Tied Arrays with Negative Array Indices
local ${$x}
Unicode Character Database 4.0.0
Miscellaneous Enhancements
Modules and Pragmata
Updated Modules And Pragmata

base, B::Bytecode, B::Concise, B::Deparse, Benchmark, ByteLoader, bytes, CGI, charnames, CPAN, Data::Dumper, DB_File, Devel::PPPort, Digest::MD5, Encode, fields, libnet, Math::BigInt, MIME::Base64, NEXT, Net::Ping, PerlIO::scalar, podlators, Pod::LaTeX, PodParsers, Pod::Perldoc, Scalar::Util, Storable, strict, Term::ANSIcolor, Test::Harness, Test::More, Test::Simple, Text::Balanced, Time::HiRes, threads, threads::shared, Unicode::Collate, Unicode::Normalize, Win32::GetFolderPath, Win32::GetOSVersion

Utility Changes
New Documentation
Installation and Configuration Improvements
Platform-specific enhancements
Selected Bug Fixes
Closures, eval and lexicals
Generic fixes
Platform-specific fixes
New or Changed Diagnostics
Changed "A thread exited while %d threads were running"
Removed "Attempt to clear a restricted hash"
New "Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine"
Changed "Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator"
New "Missing control char name in \c"
New "Newline in left-justified string for %s"
New "Possible precedence problem on bitwise %c operator"
New "read() on %s filehandle %s"
New "Tied variable freed while still in use"
New "To%s: illegal mapping '%s'"
New "Use of freed value in iteration"
Changed Internals
New Tests
Known Problems
Tied hashes in scalar context
Net::Ping 450_service and 510_ping_udp failures
B::C
Platform Specific Problems
EBCDIC Platforms
Cygwin 1.5 problems
HP-UX: HP cc warnings about sendfile and sendpath
IRIX: t/uni/tr_7jis.t falsely failing
Mac OS X: no usemymalloc
Tru64: No threaded builds with GNU cc (gcc)
Win32: sysopen, sysread, syswrite
TODO
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl589delta - what is new for perl v5.8.9

DESCRIPTION
Notice
Incompatible Changes
Core Enhancements
Unicode Character Database 5.1.0.
stat and -X on directory handles
Source filters in @INC
Exceptions in constant folding
no VERSION
Improved internal UTF-8 caching code
Runtime relocatable installations
New internal variables

${^CHILD_ERROR_NATIVE}, ${^UTF8CACHE}

readpipe is now overridable
simple exception handling macros
-D option enhancements
XS-assisted SWASHGET
Constant subroutines
New Platforms
Modules and Pragmata
New Modules
Updated Modules
Utility Changes
debugger upgraded to version 1.31
perlthanks
perlbug
h2xs
h2ph
New Documentation
Changes to Existing Documentation
Performance Enhancements
Installation and Configuration Improvements
Relocatable installations
Configuration improvements
Compilation improvements
Installation improvements.
Platform Specific Changes
Selected Bug Fixes
Unicode
PerlIO
Magic
Reblessing overloaded objects now works
strict now propagates correctly into string evals
Other fixes
Platform Specific Fixes
Smaller fixes
New or Changed Diagnostics
panic: sv_chop %s
Maximal count of pending signals (%s) exceeded
panic: attempt to call %s in %s
FETCHSIZE returned a negative value
Can't upgrade %s (%d) to %d
%s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or a subroutine
Cannot make the non-overridable builtin %s fatal
Unrecognized character '%s' in column %d
Offset outside string
Invalid escape in the specified encoding in regexp; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
Your machine doesn't support dump/undump.
Changed Internals
Macro cleanups
New Tests

ext/DynaLoader/t/DynaLoader.t, t/comp/fold.t, t/io/pvbm.t, t/lib/proxy_constant_subs.t, t/op/attrhand.t, t/op/dbm.t, t/op/inccode-tie.t, t/op/incfilter.t, t/op/kill0.t, t/op/qrstack.t, t/op/qr.t, t/op/regexp_qr_embed.t, t/op/regexp_qr.t, t/op/rxcode.t, t/op/studytied.t, t/op/substT.t, t/op/symbolcache.t, t/op/upgrade.t, t/mro/package_aliases.t, t/pod/twice.t, t/run/cloexec.t, t/uni/cache.t, t/uni/chr.t, t/uni/greek.t, t/uni/latin2.t, t/uni/overload.t, t/uni/tie.t

Known Problems
Platform Specific Notes
Win32
OS/2
VMS
Obituary
Acknowledgements
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl588delta - what is new for perl v5.8.8

DESCRIPTION
Incompatible Changes
Core Enhancements
Modules and Pragmata
Utility Changes
h2xs enhancements
perlivp enhancements
New Documentation
Performance Enhancements
Installation and Configuration Improvements
Selected Bug Fixes
no warnings 'category' works correctly with -w
Remove over-optimisation
sprintf() fixes
Debugger and Unicode slowdown
Smaller fixes
New or Changed Diagnostics
Attempt to set length of freed array
Non-string passed as bitmask
Search pattern not terminated or ternary operator parsed as search pattern
Changed Internals
Platform Specific Problems
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl587delta - what is new for perl v5.8.7

DESCRIPTION
Incompatible Changes
Core Enhancements
Unicode Character Database 4.1.0
suidperl less insecure
Optional site customization script
Config.pm is now much smaller.
Modules and Pragmata
Utility Changes
find2perl enhancements
Performance Enhancements
Installation and Configuration Improvements
Selected Bug Fixes
New or Changed Diagnostics
Changed Internals
Known Problems
Platform Specific Problems
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl586delta - what is new for perl v5.8.6

DESCRIPTION
Incompatible Changes
Core Enhancements
Modules and Pragmata
Utility Changes
Performance Enhancements
Selected Bug Fixes
New or Changed Diagnostics
Changed Internals
New Tests
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl585delta - what is new for perl v5.8.5

DESCRIPTION
Incompatible Changes
Core Enhancements
Modules and Pragmata
Utility Changes
Perl's debugger
h2ph
Installation and Configuration Improvements
Selected Bug Fixes
New or Changed Diagnostics
Changed Internals
Known Problems
Platform Specific Problems
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl584delta - what is new for perl v5.8.4

DESCRIPTION
Incompatible Changes
Core Enhancements
Malloc wrapping
Unicode Character Database 4.0.1
suidperl less insecure
format
Modules and Pragmata
Updated modules

Attribute::Handlers, B, Benchmark, CGI, Carp, Cwd, Exporter, File::Find, IO, IPC::Open3, Local::Maketext, Math::BigFloat, Math::BigInt, Math::BigRat, MIME::Base64, ODBM_File, POSIX, Shell, Socket, Storable, Switch, Sys::Syslog, Term::ANSIColor, Time::HiRes, Unicode::UCD, Win32, base, open, threads, utf8

Performance Enhancements
Utility Changes
Installation and Configuration Improvements
Selected Bug Fixes
New or Changed Diagnostics
Changed Internals
Future Directions
Platform Specific Problems
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl583delta - what is new for perl v5.8.3

DESCRIPTION
Incompatible Changes
Core Enhancements
Modules and Pragmata

CGI, Cwd, Digest, Digest::MD5, Encode, File::Spec, FindBin, List::Util, Math::BigInt, PodParser, Pod::Perldoc, POSIX, Unicode::Collate, Unicode::Normalize, Test::Harness, threads::shared

Utility Changes
New Documentation
Installation and Configuration Improvements
Selected Bug Fixes
New or Changed Diagnostics
Changed Internals
Configuration and Building
Platform Specific Problems
Known Problems
Future Directions
Obituary
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl582delta - what is new for perl v5.8.2

DESCRIPTION
Incompatible Changes
Core Enhancements
Hash Randomisation
Threading
Modules and Pragmata
Updated Modules And Pragmata

Devel::PPPort, Digest::MD5, I18N::LangTags, libnet, MIME::Base64, Pod::Perldoc, strict, Tie::Hash, Time::HiRes, Unicode::Collate, Unicode::Normalize, UNIVERSAL

Selected Bug Fixes
Changed Internals
Platform Specific Problems
Future Directions
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl581delta - what is new for perl v5.8.1

DESCRIPTION
Incompatible Changes
Hash Randomisation
UTF-8 On Filehandles No Longer Activated By Locale
Single-number v-strings are no longer v-strings before "=>"
(Win32) The -C Switch Has Been Repurposed
(Win32) The /d Switch Of cmd.exe
Core Enhancements
UTF-8 no longer default under UTF-8 locales
Unsafe signals again available
Tied Arrays with Negative Array Indices
local ${$x}
Unicode Character Database 4.0.0
Deprecation Warnings
Miscellaneous Enhancements
Modules and Pragmata
Updated Modules And Pragmata

base, B::Bytecode, B::Concise, B::Deparse, Benchmark, ByteLoader, bytes, CGI, charnames, CPAN, Data::Dumper, DB_File, Devel::PPPort, Digest::MD5, Encode, fields, libnet, Math::BigInt, MIME::Base64, NEXT, Net::Ping, PerlIO::scalar, podlators, Pod::LaTeX, PodParsers, Pod::Perldoc, Scalar::Util, Storable, strict, Term::ANSIcolor, Test::Harness, Test::More, Test::Simple, Text::Balanced, Time::HiRes, threads, threads::shared, Unicode::Collate, Unicode::Normalize, Win32::GetFolderPath, Win32::GetOSVersion

Utility Changes
New Documentation
Installation and Configuration Improvements
Platform-specific enhancements
Selected Bug Fixes
Closures, eval and lexicals
Generic fixes
Platform-specific fixes
New or Changed Diagnostics
Changed "A thread exited while %d threads were running"
Removed "Attempt to clear a restricted hash"
New "Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine"
Changed "Invalid range "%s" in transliteration operator"
New "Missing control char name in \c"
New "Newline in left-justified string for %s"
New "Possible precedence problem on bitwise %c operator"
New "Pseudo-hashes are deprecated"
New "read() on %s filehandle %s"
New "5.005 threads are deprecated"
New "Tied variable freed while still in use"
New "To%s: illegal mapping '%s'"
New "Use of freed value in iteration"
Changed Internals
New Tests
Known Problems
Tied hashes in scalar context
Net::Ping 450_service and 510_ping_udp failures
B::C
Platform Specific Problems
EBCDIC Platforms
Cygwin 1.5 problems
HP-UX: HP cc warnings about sendfile and sendpath
IRIX: t/uni/tr_7jis.t falsely failing
Mac OS X: no usemymalloc
Tru64: No threaded builds with GNU cc (gcc)
Win32: sysopen, sysread, syswrite
Future Directions
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO

perl58delta - what is new for perl v5.8.0

DESCRIPTION
Highlights In 5.8.0
Incompatible Changes
Binary Incompatibility
64-bit platforms and malloc
AIX Dynaloading
Attributes for my variables now handled at run-time
Socket Extension Dynamic in VMS
IEEE-format Floating Point Default on OpenVMS Alpha
New Unicode Semantics (no more use utf8, almost)
New Unicode Properties
REF(...) Instead Of SCALAR(...)
pack/unpack D/F recycled
glob() now returns filenames in alphabetical order
Deprecations
Core Enhancements
Unicode Overhaul
PerlIO is Now The Default
ithreads
Restricted Hashes
Safe Signals
Understanding of Numbers
Arrays now always interpolate into double-quoted strings [561]
Miscellaneous Changes
Modules and Pragmata
New Modules and Pragmata
Updated And Improved Modules and Pragmata
Utility Changes
New Documentation
Performance Enhancements
Installation and Configuration Improvements
Generic Improvements
New Or Improved Platforms
Selected Bug Fixes
Platform Specific Changes and Fixes
New or Changed Diagnostics
Changed Internals
Security Vulnerability Closed [561]
New Tests
Known Problems
The Compiler Suite Is Still Very Experimental
Localising Tied Arrays and Hashes Is Broken
Building Extensions Can Fail Because Of Largefiles
Modifying $_ Inside for(..)
mod_perl 1.26 Doesn't Build With Threaded Perl
lib/ftmp-security tests warn 'system possibly insecure'
libwww-perl (LWP) fails base/date #51
PDL failing some tests
Perl_get_sv
Self-tying Problems
ext/threads/t/libc
Failure of Thread (5.005-style) tests
Timing problems
Tied/Magical Array/Hash Elements Do Not Autovivify
Unicode in package/class and subroutine names does not work
Platform Specific Problems
AIX
Alpha systems with old gccs fail several tests
AmigaOS
BeOS
Cygwin "unable to remap"
Cygwin ndbm tests fail on FAT
DJGPP Failures
FreeBSD built with ithreads coredumps reading large directories
FreeBSD Failing locale Test 117 For ISO 8859-15 Locales
IRIX fails ext/List/Util/t/shuffle.t or Digest::MD5
HP-UX lib/posix Subtest 9 Fails When LP64-Configured
Linux with glibc 2.2.5 fails t/op/int subtest #6 with -Duse64bitint
Linux With Sfio Fails op/misc Test 48
Mac OS X
Mac OS X dyld undefined symbols
OS/2 Test Failures
op/sprintf tests 91, 129, and 130
SCO
Solaris 2.5
Solaris x86 Fails Tests With -Duse64bitint
SUPER-UX (NEC SX)
Term::ReadKey not working on Win32
UNICOS/mk
UTS
VOS (Stratus)
VMS
Win32
XML::Parser not working
z/OS (OS/390)
Unicode Support on EBCDIC Still Spotty
Seen In Perl 5.7 But Gone Now
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO
HISTORY

perl573delta - what's new for perl v5.7.3

DESCRIPTION
Changes
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO
HISTORY

perl572delta - what's new for perl v5.7.2

DESCRIPTION
Security Vulnerability Closed
Incompatible Changes
64-bit platforms and malloc
AIX Dynaloading
Socket Extension Dynamic in VMS
Different Definition of the Unicode Character Classes \p{In...}
Deprecations
Core Enhancements
Modules and Pragmata
New Modules and Distributions
Updated And Improved Modules and Pragmata
Utility Changes
New Documentation
Installation and Configuration Improvements
New Or Improved Platforms
Generic Improvements
Selected Bug Fixes
Platform Specific Changes and Fixes
New or Changed Diagnostics
Source Code Enhancements
MAGIC constants
Better commented code
Regex pre-/post-compilation items matched up
gcc -Wall
New Tests
Known Problems
AIX
Amiga Perl Invoking Mystery
lib/ftmp-security tests warn 'system possibly insecure'
Cygwin intermittent failures of lib/Memoize/t/expire_file 11 and 12
HP-UX lib/io_multihomed Fails When LP64-Configured
HP-UX lib/posix Subtest 9 Fails When LP64-Configured
Linux With Sfio Fails op/misc Test 48
OS/390
op/sprintf tests 129 and 130
Failure of Thread tests
UNICOS
UTS
VMS
Win32
Localising a Tied Variable Leaks Memory
Self-tying of Arrays and Hashes Is Forbidden
Variable Attributes are not Currently Usable for Tieing
Building Extensions Can Fail Because Of Largefiles
The Compiler Suite Is Still Experimental
The Long Double Support is Still Experimental
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO
HISTORY

perl571delta - what's new for perl v5.7.1

DESCRIPTION
Security Vulnerability Closed
Incompatible Changes
Core Enhancements
AUTOLOAD Is Now Lvaluable
PerlIO is Now The Default
Signals Are Now Safe
Modules and Pragmata
New Modules
Updated And Improved Modules and Pragmata
Performance Enhancements
Utility Changes
New Documentation
perlclib
perliol
README.aix
README.bs2000
README.macos
README.mpeix
README.solaris
README.vos
Porting/repository.pod
Installation and Configuration Improvements
New Or Improved Platforms
Generic Improvements

d_cmsghdr, d_fcntl_can_lock, d_fsync, d_getitimer, d_getpagsz, d_msghdr_s, need_va_copy, d_readv, d_recvmsg, d_sendmsg, sig_size, d_sockatmark, d_strtoq, d_u32align, d_ualarm, d_usleep

Selected Bug Fixes
Platform Specific Changes and Fixes
New or Changed Diagnostics
Changed Internals
New Tests
Known Problems
AIX vac 5.0.0.0 May Produce Buggy Code For Perl
lib/ftmp-security tests warn 'system possibly insecure'
lib/io_multihomed Fails In LP64-Configured HP-UX
Test lib/posix Subtest 9 Fails In LP64-Configured HP-UX
lib/b test 19
Linux With Sfio Fails op/misc Test 48
sigaction test 13 in VMS
sprintf tests 129 and 130
Failure of Thread tests
Localising a Tied Variable Leaks Memory
Self-tying of Arrays and Hashes Is Forbidden
Building Extensions Can Fail Because Of Largefiles
The Compiler Suite Is Still Experimental
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO
HISTORY

perl570delta - what's new for perl v5.7.0

DESCRIPTION
Security Vulnerability Closed
Incompatible Changes
Core Enhancements
Modules and Pragmata
New Modules
Updated And Improved Modules and Pragmata
Utility Changes
New Documentation
Performance Enhancements
Installation and Configuration Improvements
Generic Improvements
Selected Bug Fixes
Platform Specific Changes and Fixes
New or Changed Diagnostics
Changed Internals
Known Problems
Unicode Support Still Far From Perfect
EBCDIC Still A Lost Platform
Building Extensions Can Fail Because Of Largefiles
ftmp-security tests warn 'system possibly insecure'
Test lib/posix Subtest 9 Fails In LP64-Configured HP-UX
Long Doubles Still Don't Work In Solaris
Linux With Sfio Fails op/misc Test 48
Storable tests fail in some platforms
Threads Are Still Experimental
The Compiler Suite Is Still Experimental
Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO
HISTORY

perl561delta - what's new for perl v5.6.x

DESCRIPTION
Summary of changes between 5.6.0 and 5.6.1
Security Issues
Core bug fixes

UNIVERSAL::isa(), Memory leaks, Numeric conversions, qw(a\\b), caller(), Bugs in regular expressions, "slurp" mode, Autovivification of symbolic references to special variables, Lexical warnings, Spurious warnings and errors, glob(), Tainting, sort(), #line directives, Subroutine prototypes, map(), Debugger, PERL5OPT, chop(), Unicode support, 64-bit support, Compiler, Lvalue subroutines, IO::Socket, File::Find, xsubpp, no Module;, Tests

Core features
Configuration issues
Documentation
Bundled modules

B::Concise, File::Temp, Pod::LaTeX, Pod::Text::Overstrike, CGI, CPAN, Class::Struct, DB_File, Devel::Peek, File::Find, Getopt::Long, IO::Poll, IPC::Open3, Math::BigFloat, Math::Complex, Net::Ping, Opcode, Pod::Parser, Pod::Text, SDBM_File, Sys::Syslog, Tie::RefHash, Tie::SubstrHash

Platform-specific improvements

NCR MP-RAS, NonStop-UX

Core Enhancements
Interpreter cloning, threads, and concurrency
Lexically scoped warning categories
Unicode and UTF-8 support
Support for interpolating named characters
"our" declarations
Support for strings represented as a vector of ordinals
Improved Perl version numbering system
New syntax for declaring subroutine attributes
File and directory handles can be autovivified
open() with more than two arguments
64-bit support
Large file support
Long doubles
"more bits"
Enhanced support for sort() subroutines
sort $coderef @foo allowed
File globbing implemented internally
Support for CHECK blocks
POSIX character class syntax [: :] supported
Better pseudo-random number generator
Improved qw// operator
Better worst-case behavior of hashes
pack() format 'Z' supported
pack() format modifier '!' supported
pack() and unpack() support counted strings
Comments in pack() templates
Weak references
Binary numbers supported
Lvalue subroutines
Some arrows may be omitted in calls through references
exists() is supported on subroutine names
exists() and delete() are supported on array elements
Pseudo-hashes work better
Automatic flushing of output buffers
Better diagnostics on meaningless filehandle operations
Where possible, buffered data discarded from duped input filehandle
eof() has the same old magic as <>
binmode() can be used to set :crlf and :raw modes
-T filetest recognizes UTF-8 encoded files as "text"
system(), backticks and pipe open now reflect exec() failure
Improved diagnostics
Diagnostics follow STDERR
More consistent close-on-exec behavior
syswrite() ease-of-use
Better syntax checks on parenthesized unary operators
Bit operators support full native integer width
Improved security features
More functional bareword prototype (*)
require and do may be overridden
$^X variables may now have names longer than one character
New variable $^C reflects -c switch
New variable $^V contains Perl version as a string
Optional Y2K warnings
Arrays now always interpolate into double-quoted strings
@- and @+ provide starting/ending offsets of regex submatches
Modules and Pragmata
Modules

attributes, B, Benchmark, ByteLoader, constant, charnames, Data::Dumper, DB, DB_File, Devel::DProf, Devel::Peek, Dumpvalue, DynaLoader, English, Env, Fcntl, File::Compare, File::Find, File::Glob, File::Spec, File::Spec::Functions, Getopt::Long, IO, JPL, lib, Math::BigInt, Math::Complex, Math::Trig, Pod::Parser, Pod::InputObjects, Pod::Checker, podchecker, Pod::ParseUtils, Pod::Find, Pod::Select, podselect, Pod::Usage, pod2usage, Pod::Text and Pod::Man, SDBM_File, Sys::Syslog, Sys::Hostname, Term::ANSIColor, Time::Local, Win32, XSLoader, DBM Filters

Pragmata
Utility Changes
dprofpp
find2perl
h2xs
perlcc
perldoc
The Perl Debugger
Improved Documentation

perlapi.pod, perlboot.pod, perlcompile.pod, perldbmfilter.pod, perldebug.pod, perldebguts.pod, perlfork.pod, perlfilter.pod, perlhack.pod, perlintern.pod, perllexwarn.pod, perlnumber.pod, perlopentut.pod, perlreftut.pod, perltootc.pod, perltodo.pod, perlunicode.pod

Performance enhancements
Simple sort() using { $a <=> $b } and the like are optimized
Optimized assignments to lexical variables
Faster subroutine calls
delete(), each(), values() and hash iteration are faster
Installation and Configuration Improvements
-Dusethreads means something different
New Configure flags
Threadedness and 64-bitness now more daring
Long Doubles
-Dusemorebits
-Duselargefiles
installusrbinperl
SOCKS support
-A flag
Enhanced Installation Directories
gcc automatically tried if 'cc' does not seem to be working
Platform specific changes
Supported platforms
DOS
OS390 (OpenEdition MVS)
VMS
Win32
Significant bug fixes
<HANDLE> on empty files
eval '...' improvements
All compilation errors are true errors
Implicitly closed filehandles are safer
Behavior of list slices is more consistent
(\$) prototype and $foo{a}
goto &sub and AUTOLOAD
-bareword allowed under use integer
Failures in DESTROY()
Locale bugs fixed
Memory leaks
Spurious subroutine stubs after failed subroutine calls
Taint failures under -U
END blocks and the -c switch
Potential to leak DATA filehandles
New or Changed Diagnostics

"%s" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s, "my sub" not yet implemented, "our" variable %s redeclared, '!' allowed only after types %s, / cannot take a count, / must be followed by a, A or Z, / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*, / must follow a numeric type, /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through, /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c in character class passed through, /%s/ should probably be written as "%s", %s() called too early to check prototype, %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element, %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice, %s argument is not a subroutine name, %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s, (in cleanup) %s, <> should be quotes, Attempt to join self, Bad evalled substitution pattern, Bad realloc() ignored, Bareword found in conditional, Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable, Bit vector size > 32 non-portable, Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s, Can't check filesystem of script "%s", Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s", Can't declare %s in "%s", Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default, Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call, Can't read CRTL environ, Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file, Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine, Can't weaken a nonreference, Character class [:%s:] unknown, Character class syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes, Constant is not %s reference, constant(%s): %s, CORE::%s is not a keyword, defined(@array) is deprecated, defined(%hash) is deprecated, Did not produce a valid header, (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?), Document contains no data, entering effective %s failed, false [] range "%s" in regexp, Filehandle %s opened only for output, flock() on closed filehandle %s, Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name, Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable, Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s", Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|, Illegal binary digit %s, Illegal binary digit %s ignored, Illegal number of bits in vec, Integer overflow in %s number, Invalid %s attribute: %s, Invalid %s attributes: %s, invalid [] range "%s" in regexp, Invalid separator character %s in attribute list, Invalid separator character %s in subroutine attribute list, leaving effective %s failed, Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet, Method %s not permitted, Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}, Missing command in piped open, Missing name in "my sub", No %s specified for -%c, No package name allowed for variable %s in "our", No space allowed after -%c, no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC, Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable, panic: del_backref, panic: kid popen errno read, panic: magic_killbackrefs, Parentheses missing around "%s" list, Possible unintended interpolation of %s in string, Possible Y2K bug: %s, pragma "attrs" is deprecated, use "sub NAME : ATTRS" instead, Premature end of script headers, Repeat count in pack overflows, Repeat count in unpack overflows, realloc() of freed memory ignored, Reference is already weak, setpgrp can't take arguments, Strange *+?{} on zero-length expression, switching effective %s is not implemented, This Perl can't reset CRTL environ elements (%s), This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s), Too late to run %s block, Unknown open() mode '%s', Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s, Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through, Unterminated attribute parameter in attribute list, Unterminated attribute list, Unterminated attribute parameter in subroutine attribute list, Unterminated subroutine attribute list, Value of CLI symbol "%s" too long, Version number must be a constant number

New tests
Incompatible Changes
Perl Source Incompatibilities

CHECK is a new keyword, Treatment of list slices of undef has changed, Format of $English::PERL_VERSION is different, Literals of the form 1.2.3 parse differently, Possibly changed pseudo-random number generator, Hashing function for hash keys has changed, undef fails on read only values, Close-on-exec bit may be set on pipe and socket handles, Writing "$$1" to mean "${$}1" is unsupported, delete(), each(), values() and \(%h), vec(EXPR,OFFSET,BITS) enforces powers-of-two BITS, Text of some diagnostic output has changed, %@ has been removed, Parenthesized not() behaves like a list operator, Semantics of bareword prototype (*) have changed, Semantics of bit operators may have changed on 64-bit platforms, More builtins taint their results

C Source Incompatibilities

PERL_POLLUTE, PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT, PERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC

Compatible C Source API Changes

PATCHLEVEL is now PERL_VERSION

Binary Incompatibilities
Known Problems
Localizing a tied hash element may leak memory
Known test failures
EBCDIC platforms not fully supported
UNICOS/mk CC failures during Configure run
Arrow operator and arrays
Experimental features

Threads, Unicode, 64-bit support, Lvalue subroutines, Weak references, The pseudo-hash data type, The Compiler suite, Internal implementation of file globbing, The DB module, The regular expression code constructs:

Obsolete Diagnostics

Character class syntax [: :] is reserved for future extensions, Ill-formed logical name |%s| in prime_env_iter, In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s, Probable precedence problem on %s, regexp too big, Use of "$$<digit>" to mean "${$}<digit>" is deprecated

Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO
HISTORY

perl56delta - what's new for perl v5.6.0

DESCRIPTION
Core Enhancements
Interpreter cloning, threads, and concurrency
Lexically scoped warning categories
Unicode and UTF-8 support
Support for interpolating named characters
"our" declarations
Support for strings represented as a vector of ordinals
Improved Perl version numbering system
New syntax for declaring subroutine attributes
File and directory handles can be autovivified
open() with more than two arguments
64-bit support
Large file support
Long doubles
"more bits"
Enhanced support for sort() subroutines
sort $coderef @foo allowed
File globbing implemented internally
Support for CHECK blocks
POSIX character class syntax [: :] supported
Better pseudo-random number generator
Improved qw// operator
Better worst-case behavior of hashes
pack() format 'Z' supported
pack() format modifier '!' supported
pack() and unpack() support counted strings
Comments in pack() templates
Weak references
Binary numbers supported
Lvalue subroutines
Some arrows may be omitted in calls through references
exists() is supported on subroutine names
exists() and delete() are supported on array elements
Pseudo-hashes work better
Automatic flushing of output buffers
Better diagnostics on meaningless filehandle operations
Where possible, buffered data discarded from duped input filehandle
eof() has the same old magic as <>
binmode() can be used to set :crlf and :raw modes
-T filetest recognizes UTF-8 encoded files as "text"
system(), backticks and pipe open now reflect exec() failure
Improved diagnostics
Diagnostics follow STDERR
More consistent close-on-exec behavior
syswrite() ease-of-use
Better syntax checks on parenthesized unary operators
Bit operators support full native integer width
Improved security features
More functional bareword prototype (*)
require and do may be overridden
$^X variables may now have names longer than one character
New variable $^C reflects -c switch
New variable $^V contains Perl version as a string
Optional Y2K warnings
Arrays now always interpolate into double-quoted strings
@- and @+ provide starting/ending offsets of regex matches
Modules and Pragmata
Modules

attributes, B, Benchmark, ByteLoader, constant, charnames, Data::Dumper, DB, DB_File, Devel::DProf, Devel::Peek, Dumpvalue, DynaLoader, English, Env, Fcntl, File::Compare, File::Find, File::Glob, File::Spec, File::Spec::Functions, Getopt::Long, IO, JPL, lib, Math::BigInt, Math::Complex, Math::Trig, Pod::Parser, Pod::InputObjects, Pod::Checker, podchecker, Pod::ParseUtils, Pod::Find, Pod::Select, podselect, Pod::Usage, pod2usage, Pod::Text and Pod::Man, SDBM_File, Sys::Syslog, Sys::Hostname, Term::ANSIColor, Time::Local, Win32, XSLoader, DBM Filters

Pragmata
Utility Changes
dprofpp
find2perl
h2xs
perlcc
perldoc
The Perl Debugger
Improved Documentation

perlapi.pod, perlboot.pod, perlcompile.pod, perldbmfilter.pod, perldebug.pod, perldebguts.pod, perlfork.pod, perlfilter.pod, perlhack.pod, perlintern.pod, perllexwarn.pod, perlnumber.pod, perlopentut.pod, perlreftut.pod, perltootc.pod, perltodo.pod, perlunicode.pod

Performance enhancements
Simple sort() using { $a <=> $b } and the like are optimized
Optimized assignments to lexical variables
Faster subroutine calls
delete(), each(), values() and hash iteration are faster
Installation and Configuration Improvements
-Dusethreads means something different
New Configure flags
Threadedness and 64-bitness now more daring
Long Doubles
-Dusemorebits
-Duselargefiles
installusrbinperl
SOCKS support
-A flag
Enhanced Installation Directories
Platform specific changes
Supported platforms
DOS
OS390 (OpenEdition MVS)
VMS
Win32
Significant bug fixes
<HANDLE> on empty files
eval '...' improvements
All compilation errors are true errors
Implicitly closed filehandles are safer
Behavior of list slices is more consistent
(\$) prototype and $foo{a}
goto &sub and AUTOLOAD
-bareword allowed under use integer
Failures in DESTROY()
Locale bugs fixed
Memory leaks
Spurious subroutine stubs after failed subroutine calls
Taint failures under -U
END blocks and the -c switch
Potential to leak DATA filehandles
New or Changed Diagnostics

"%s" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s, "my sub" not yet implemented, "our" variable %s redeclared, '!' allowed only after types %s, / cannot take a count, / must be followed by a, A or Z, / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*, / must follow a numeric type, /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through, /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c in character class passed through, /%s/ should probably be written as "%s", %s() called too early to check prototype, %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element, %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice, %s argument is not a subroutine name, %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s, (in cleanup) %s, <> should be quotes, Attempt to join self, Bad evalled substitution pattern, Bad realloc() ignored, Bareword found in conditional, Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable, Bit vector size > 32 non-portable, Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s, Can't check filesystem of script "%s", Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s", Can't declare %s in "%s", Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default, Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call, Can't read CRTL environ, Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file, Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine, Can't weaken a nonreference, Character class [:%s:] unknown, Character class syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes, Constant is not %s reference, constant(%s): %s, CORE::%s is not a keyword, defined(@array) is deprecated, defined(%hash) is deprecated, Did not produce a valid header, (Did you mean "local" instead of "our"?), Document contains no data, entering effective %s failed, false [] range "%s" in regexp, Filehandle %s opened only for output, flock() on closed filehandle %s, Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name, Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable, Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s", Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|, Illegal binary digit %s, Illegal binary digit %s ignored, Illegal number of bits in vec, Integer overflow in %s number, Invalid %s attribute: %s, Invalid %s attributes: %s, invalid [] range "%s" in regexp, Invalid separator character %s in attribute list, Invalid separator character %s in subroutine attribute list, leaving effective %s failed, Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet, Method %s not permitted, Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}, Missing command in piped open, Missing name in "my sub", No %s specified for -%c, No package name allowed for variable %s in "our", No space allowed after -%c, no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC, Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable, panic: del_backref, panic: kid popen errno read, panic: magic_killbackrefs, Parentheses missing around "%s" list, Possible unintended interpolation of %s in string, Possible Y2K bug: %s, pragma "attrs" is deprecated, use "sub NAME : ATTRS" instead, Premature end of script headers, Repeat count in pack overflows, Repeat count in unpack overflows, realloc() of freed memory ignored, Reference is already weak, setpgrp can't take arguments, Strange *+?{} on zero-length expression, switching effective %s is not implemented, This Perl can't reset CRTL environ elements (%s), This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s), Too late to run %s block, Unknown open() mode '%s', Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s, Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through, Unterminated attribute parameter in attribute list, Unterminated attribute list, Unterminated attribute parameter in subroutine attribute list, Unterminated subroutine attribute list, Value of CLI symbol "%s" too long, Version number must be a constant number

New tests
Incompatible Changes
Perl Source Incompatibilities

CHECK is a new keyword, Treatment of list slices of undef has changed, Format of $English::PERL_VERSION is different, Literals of the form 1.2.3 parse differently, Possibly changed pseudo-random number generator, Hashing function for hash keys has changed, undef fails on read only values, Close-on-exec bit may be set on pipe and socket handles, Writing "$$1" to mean "${$}1" is unsupported, delete(), each(), values() and \(%h), vec(EXPR,OFFSET,BITS) enforces powers-of-two BITS, Text of some diagnostic output has changed, %@ has been removed, Parenthesized not() behaves like a list operator, Semantics of bareword prototype (*) have changed, Semantics of bit operators may have changed on 64-bit platforms, More builtins taint their results

C Source Incompatibilities

PERL_POLLUTE, PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT, PERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC

Compatible C Source API Changes

PATCHLEVEL is now PERL_VERSION

Binary Incompatibilities
Known Problems
Thread test failures
EBCDIC platforms not supported
In 64-bit HP-UX the lib/io_multihomed test may hang
NEXTSTEP 3.3 POSIX test failure
Tru64 (aka Digital UNIX, aka DEC OSF/1) lib/sdbm test failure with gcc
UNICOS/mk CC failures during Configure run
Arrow operator and arrays
Experimental features

Threads, Unicode, 64-bit support, Lvalue subroutines, Weak references, The pseudo-hash data type, The Compiler suite, Internal implementation of file globbing, The DB module, The regular expression code constructs:

Obsolete Diagnostics

Character class syntax [: :] is reserved for future extensions, Ill-formed logical name |%s| in prime_env_iter, In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s, Probable precedence problem on %s, regexp too big, Use of "$$<digit>" to mean "${$}<digit>" is deprecated

Reporting Bugs
SEE ALSO
HISTORY

perl5005delta - what's new for perl5.005

DESCRIPTION
About the new versioning system
Incompatible Changes
WARNING: This version is not binary compatible with Perl 5.004.
Default installation structure has changed
Perl Source Compatibility
C Source Compatibility
Binary Compatibility
Security fixes may affect compatibility
Relaxed new mandatory warnings introduced in 5.004
Licensing
Core Changes
Threads
Compiler
Regular Expressions

Many new and improved optimizations, Many bug fixes, New regular expression constructs, New operator for precompiled regular expressions, Other improvements, Incompatible changes

Improved malloc()
Quicksort is internally implemented
Reliable signals
Reliable stack pointers
More generous treatment of carriage returns
Memory leaks
Better support for multiple interpreters
Behavior of local() on array and hash elements is now well-defined
%! is transparently tied to the Errno module
Pseudo-hashes are supported
EXPR foreach EXPR is supported
Keywords can be globally overridden
$^E is meaningful on Win32
foreach (1..1000000) optimized
Foo:: can be used as implicitly quoted package name
exists $Foo::{Bar::} tests existence of a package
Better locale support
Experimental support for 64-bit platforms
prototype() returns useful results on builtins
Extended support for exception handling
Re-blessing in DESTROY() supported for chaining DESTROY() methods
All printf format conversions are handled internally
New INIT keyword
New lock keyword
New qr// operator
our is now a reserved word
Tied arrays are now fully supported
Tied handles support is better
4th argument to substr
Negative LENGTH argument to splice
Magic lvalues are now more magical
<> now reads in records
Supported Platforms
New Platforms
Changes in existing support
Modules and Pragmata
New Modules

B, Data::Dumper, Dumpvalue, Errno, File::Spec, ExtUtils::Installed, ExtUtils::Packlist, Fatal, IPC::SysV, Test, Tie::Array, Tie::Handle, Thread, attrs, fields, re

Changes in existing modules

Benchmark, Carp, CGI, Fcntl, Math::Complex, Math::Trig, POSIX, DB_File, MakeMaker, CPAN, Cwd

Utility Changes
Documentation Changes
New Diagnostics

Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &, Bad index while coercing array into hash, Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package, Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value, Can't check filesystem of script "%s" for nosuid, Can't coerce array into hash, Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string, Can't localize pseudo-hash element, Can't use %%! because Errno.pm is not available, Cannot find an opnumber for "%s", Character class syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions, Character class syntax [: :] is reserved for future extensions, Character class syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions, %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression, %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval', %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time, Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main), Illegal hex digit ignored, No such array field, No such field "%s" in variable %s of type %s, Out of memory during ridiculously large request, Range iterator outside integer range, Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method '%s' %s, Reference found where even-sized list expected, Undefined value assigned to typeglob, Use of reserved word "%s" is deprecated, perl: warning: Setting locale failed

Obsolete Diagnostics

Can't mktemp(), Can't write to temp file for -e: %s, Cannot open temporary file, regexp too big

Configuration Changes
BUGS
SEE ALSO
HISTORY

perl5004delta - what's new for perl5.004

DESCRIPTION
Supported Environments
Core Changes
List assignment to %ENV works
Change to "Can't locate Foo.pm in @INC" error
Compilation option: Binary compatibility with 5.003
$PERL5OPT environment variable
Limitations on -M, -m, and -T options
More precise warnings
Deprecated: Inherited AUTOLOAD for non-methods
Previously deprecated %OVERLOAD is no longer usable
Subroutine arguments created only when they're modified
Group vector changeable with $)
Fixed parsing of $$<digit>, &$<digit>, etc.
Fixed localization of $<digit>, $&, etc.
No resetting of $. on implicit close
wantarray may return undef
eval EXPR determines value of EXPR in scalar context
Changes to tainting checks

No glob() or <*>, No spawning if tainted $CDPATH, $ENV, $BASH_ENV, No spawning if tainted $TERM doesn't look like a terminal name

New Opcode module and revised Safe module
Embedding improvements
Internal change: FileHandle class based on IO::* classes
Internal change: PerlIO abstraction interface
New and changed syntax

$coderef->(PARAMS)

New and changed builtin constants

__PACKAGE__

New and changed builtin variables

$^E, $^H, $^M

New and changed builtin functions

delete on slices, flock, printf and sprintf, keys as an lvalue, my() in Control Structures, pack() and unpack(), sysseek(), use VERSION, use Module VERSION LIST, prototype(FUNCTION), srand, $_ as Default, m//gc does not reset search position on failure, m//x ignores whitespace before ?*+{}, nested sub{} closures work now, formats work right on changing lexicals

New builtin methods

isa(CLASS), can(METHOD), VERSION( [NEED] )

TIEHANDLE now supported

TIEHANDLE classname, LIST, PRINT this, LIST, PRINTF this, LIST, READ this LIST, READLINE this, GETC this, DESTROY this

Malloc enhancements

-DPERL_EMERGENCY_SBRK, -DPACK_MALLOC, -DTWO_POT_OPTIMIZE

Miscellaneous efficiency enhancements
Support for More Operating Systems
Win32
Plan 9
QNX
AmigaOS
Pragmata

use autouse MODULE => qw(sub1 sub2 sub3), use blib, use blib 'dir', use constant NAME => VALUE, use locale, use ops, use vmsish

Modules
Required Updates
Installation directories
Module information summary
Fcntl
IO
Math::Complex
Math::Trig
DB_File
Net::Ping
Object-oriented overrides for builtin operators
Utility Changes
pod2html

Sends converted HTML to standard output

xsubpp

void XSUBs now default to returning nothing

C Language API Changes

gv_fetchmethod and perl_call_sv, perl_eval_pv, Extended API for manipulating hashes

Documentation Changes

perldelta, perlfaq, perllocale, perltoot, perlapio, perlmodlib, perldebug, perlsec

New Diagnostics

"my" variable %s masks earlier declaration in same scope, %s argument is not a HASH element or slice, Allocation too large: %lx, Allocation too large, Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s), Attempt to free nonexistent shared string, Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr, Bareword "%s" refers to nonexistent package, Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s, Can't use bareword ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in use, Cannot resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s', Constant subroutine %s redefined, Constant subroutine %s undefined, Copy method did not return a reference, Died, Exiting pseudo-block via %s, Identifier too long, Illegal character %s (carriage return), Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s, Integer overflow in hex number, Integer overflow in octal number, internal error: glob failed, Invalid conversion in %s: "%s", Invalid type in pack: '%s', Invalid type in unpack: '%s', Name "%s::%s" used only once: possible typo, Null picture in formline, Offset outside string, Out of memory!, Out of memory during request for %s, panic: frexp, Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list, Possible attempt to separate words with commas, Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}, Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading `%s' in %s, Too late for "-T" option, untie attempted while %d inner references still exist, Unrecognized character %s, Unsupported function fork, Use of "$$<digit>" to mean "${$}<digit>" is deprecated, Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined(), Variable "%s" may be unavailable, Variable "%s" will not stay shared, Warning: something's wrong, Ill-formed logical name |%s| in prime_env_iter, Got an error from DosAllocMem, Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX, PERL_SH_DIR too long, Process terminated by SIG%s

BUGS
SEE ALSO
HISTORY

perlartistic - the Perl Artistic License

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
The "Artistic License"
Preamble
Definitions

"Package", "Standard Version", "Copyright Holder", "You", "Reasonable copying fee", "Freely Available"

Conditions

a), b), c), d), a), b), c), d)

perlgpl - the GNU General Public License, version 2

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE

perlaix, README.aix - Perl version 5 on IBM AIX (UNIX) systems

DESCRIPTION
Compiling Perl 5 on AIX
Supported Compilers
Incompatibility with AIX Toolbox lib gdbm
Perl 5.12 was successfully compiled and tested on:
Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX
Using Large Files with Perl
Threaded Perl
64-bit Perl
Compiling Perl 5 on older AIX versions up to 4.3.3
OS level
Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX < 5L
The IBM ANSI C Compiler
The usenm option
Using GNU's gcc for building Perl
Using Large Files with Perl < 5L
Threaded Perl < 5L
64-bit Perl < 5L
AIX 4.2 and extensions using C++ with statics
AUTHORS
DATE

perlamiga - Perl under Amiga OS

NOTE
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Prerequisites for Compiling Perl on AmigaOS

Unix emulation for AmigaOS: ixemul.library, Version of Amiga OS

Starting Perl programs under AmigaOS
Shortcomings of Perl under AmigaOS
INSTALLATION
Accessing documentation
Manpages for Perl on AmigaOS
Perl HTML Documentation on AmigaOS
Perl GNU Info Files on AmigaOS
Perl LaTeX Documentation on AmigaOS
BUILDING PERL ON AMIGAOS
Build Prerequisites for Perl on AmigaOS
Getting the Perl Source for AmigaOS
Making Perl on AmigaOS
Testing Perl on AmigaOS
Installing the built Perl on AmigaOS
PERL 5.8.0 BROKEN IN AMIGAOS
AUTHORS
SEE ALSO

perlapollo, README.apollo - Perl version 5 on Apollo DomainOS

DESCRIPTION
AUTHOR

perlbeos, README.beos - Perl version 5.8+ on BeOS

DESCRIPTION
BUILD AND INSTALL
Requirements
Configure
Build
Install
KNOWN PROBLEMS
CONTACT

perlbs2000, README.BS2000 - building and installing Perl for BS2000.

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
gzip on BS2000
bison on BS2000
Unpacking Perl Distribution on BS2000
Compiling Perl on BS2000
Testing Perl on BS2000
Installing Perl on BS2000
Using Perl in the Posix-Shell of BS2000
Using Perl in "native" BS2000
Floating point anomalies on BS2000
Using PerlIO and different encodings on ASCII and EBCDIC partitions
AUTHORS
SEE ALSO
Mailing list
HISTORY

perlce - Perl for WinCE

Building Perl for WinCE
DESCRIPTION
General explanations on cross-compiling WinCE
BUILD

Microsoft Embedded Visual Tools, Microsoft Visual C++, Rainer Keuchel's celib-sources, Rainer Keuchel's console-sources, go to ./win32 subdirectory, edit file ./win32/ce-helpers/compile.bat, run compile.bat, run compile.bat dist

Using Perl on WinCE
DESCRIPTION
LIMITATIONS
ENVIRONMENT

PERL5LIB, PATH, TMP, UNIXROOTPATH, ROWS/COLS, HOME, CONSOLEFONTSIZE

REGISTRY
XS
BUGS
INSTALLATION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
History of WinCE port
AUTHORS

Rainer Keuchel <coyxc@rainer-keuchel.de>, Vadim Konovalov

perlcygwin, README.cygwin - Perl for Cygwin

SYNOPSIS
PREREQUISITES FOR COMPILING PERL ON CYGWIN
Cygwin = GNU+Cygnus+Windows (Don't leave UNIX without it)
Cygwin Configuration

PATH, nroff, Permissions

CONFIGURE PERL ON CYGWIN
Stripping Perl Binaries on Cygwin
Optional Libraries for Perl on Cygwin

-lcrypt, -lgdbm_compat (use GDBM_File), -ldb (use DB_File), cygserver (use IPC::SysV), -lutil

Configure-time Options for Perl on Cygwin

-Uusedl, -Uusemymalloc, -Uuseperlio, -Dusemultiplicity, -Duse64bitint, -Duselongdouble, -Dusethreads, -Duselargefiles, -Dmksymlinks

Suspicious Warnings on Cygwin

Win9x and d_eofnblk, Compiler/Preprocessor defines

MAKE ON CYGWIN
TEST ON CYGWIN
File Permissions on Cygwin
NDBM_File and ODBM_File do not work on FAT filesystems
fork() failures in io_* tests
Specific features of the Cygwin port
Script Portability on Cygwin

Pathnames, Text/Binary, PerlIO, .exe, Cygwin vs. Windows process ids, Cygwin vs. Windows errors, chown(), Miscellaneous

Prebuilt methods:

Cwd::cwd, Cygwin::pid_to_winpid, Cygwin::winpid_to_pid, Cygwin::win_to_posix_path, Cygwin::posix_to_win_path, Cygwin::mount_table(), Cygwin::mount_flags, Cygwin::is_binmount

INSTALL PERL ON CYGWIN
MANIFEST ON CYGWIN

Documentation, Build, Configure, Make, Install, Tests, Compiled Perl Source, Compiled Module Source, Perl Modules/Scripts, Perl Module Tests

BUGS ON CYGWIN
AUTHORS
HISTORY

perldgux - Perl under DG/UX.

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
BUILDING PERL ON DG/UX
Non-threaded Perl on DG/UX
Threaded Perl on DG/UX
Testing Perl on DG/UX
Installing the built perl on DG/UX
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO

perldos - Perl under DOS, W31, W95.

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Prerequisites for Compiling Perl on DOS

DJGPP, Pthreads

Shortcomings of Perl under DOS
Building Perl on DOS
Testing Perl on DOS
Installation of Perl on DOS
BUILDING AND INSTALLING MODULES ON DOS
Building Prerequisites for Perl on DOS
Unpacking CPAN Modules on DOS
Building Non-XS Modules on DOS
Building XS Modules on DOS
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO

perlepoc, README.epoc - Perl for EPOC

SYNOPSIS
INTRODUCTION
INSTALLING PERL ON EPOC
STARTING PERL ON EPOC
Features of Perl on Epoc
Restrictions of Perl on Epoc
Compiling Perl 5 on the EPOC cross compiling environment
SUPPORT STATUS OF PERL ON EPOC
AUTHOR
LAST UPDATE

perlfreebsd, README.freebsd - Perl version 5 on FreeBSD systems

DESCRIPTION
FreeBSD core dumps from readdir_r with ithreads
$^X doesn't always contain a full path in FreeBSD
Perl will no longer be part of "base FreeBSD"
AUTHOR

perlhaiku, README.haiku - Perl version 5.10+ on Haiku

DESCRIPTION
BUILD AND INSTALL
KNOWN PROBLEMS
CONTACT

perlhpux, README.hpux - Perl version 5 on Hewlett-Packard Unix (HP-UX) systems

DESCRIPTION
Using perl as shipped with HP-UX
Using perl from HP's porting centre
Compiling Perl 5 on HP-UX
PA-RISC
Portability Between PA-RISC Versions
PA-RISC 1.0
PA-RISC 1.1
PA-RISC 2.0
Itanium Processor Family (IPF) and HP-UX
Itanium, Itanium 2 & Madison 6
HP-UX versions
Building Dynamic Extensions on HP-UX
The HP ANSI C Compiler
The GNU C Compiler
Using Large Files with Perl on HP-UX
Threaded Perl on HP-UX
64-bit Perl on HP-UX
Oracle on HP-UX
GDBM and Threads on HP-UX
NFS filesystems and utime(2) on HP-UX
HP-UX Kernel Parameters (maxdsiz) for Compiling Perl
nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent
Miscellaneous
AUTHOR
DATE

perlhurd, README.hurd - Perl version 5 on Hurd

DESCRIPTION
Known Problems with Perl on Hurd
AUTHOR

perlirix, README.irix - Perl version 5 on Irix systems

DESCRIPTION
Building 32-bit Perl in Irix
Building 64-bit Perl in Irix
About Compiler Versions of Irix
Linker Problems in Irix
Malloc in Irix
Building with threads in Irix
Irix 5.3
AUTHOR

perllinux, README.linux - Perl version 5 on Linux systems

DESCRIPTION
Experimental Support for Sun Studio Compilers for Linux OS
AUTHOR

perlmacos, README.macos - Perl under Mac OS (Classic)

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
AUTHOR

perlmacosx, README.macosx - Perl under Mac OS X

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Installation Prefix
SDK support
Universal Binary support
64-bit PPC support
libperl and Prebinding
Updating Apple's Perl
Known problems
MacPerl
Carbon
Cocoa
Starting From Scratch
AUTHOR
DATE

perlmpeix, README.mpeix - Perl/iX for HP e3000 MPE

SYNOPSIS
NOTE
What's New in Perl for MPE/iX
Welcome to Perl/iX
System Requirements for Perl/iX
How to Obtain Perl/iX
Perl/iX Distribution Contents Highlights

README, INSTALL, LIBSHP3K, PERL, .cpan/, lib/, man/, public_html/feedback.cgi, src/perl-5.6.0-mpe

How to Compile Perl/iX
4,  6
Getting Started with Perl/iX
MPE/iX Implementation Considerations
Known Perl/iX Bugs Under Investigation
Perl/iX To-Do List
Perl/iX Change History
AUTHOR

perlnetware - Perl for NetWare

DESCRIPTION
BUILD
Tools & SDK
Setup

SetNWBld.bat, Buildtype.bat

Make
Interpreter
Extensions
INSTALL
BUILD NEW EXTENSIONS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
AUTHORS
DATE

perlopenbsd, README.openbsd - Perl version 5 on OpenBSD systems

DESCRIPTION
OpenBSD core dumps from getprotobyname_r and getservbyname_r with ithreads
AUTHOR

perlos2 - Perl under OS/2, DOS, Win0.3*, Win0.95 and WinNT.

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Target
Other OSes
Prerequisites

EMX, RSX, HPFS, pdksh

Starting Perl programs under OS/2 (and DOS and...)
Starting OS/2 (and DOS) programs under Perl
Frequently asked questions
"It does not work"
I cannot run external programs
I cannot embed perl into my program, or use perl.dll from my program.

Is your program EMX-compiled with -Zmt -Zcrtdll?, Did you use ExtUtils::Embed?

`` and pipe-open do not work under DOS.
Cannot start find.exe "pattern" file
INSTALLATION
Automatic binary installation

PERL_BADLANG, PERL_BADFREE, Config.pm

Manual binary installation

Perl VIO and PM executables (dynamically linked), Perl_ VIO executable (statically linked), Executables for Perl utilities, Main Perl library, Additional Perl modules, Tools to compile Perl modules, Manpages for Perl and utilities, Manpages for Perl modules, Source for Perl documentation, Perl manual in .INF format, Pdksh

Warning
Accessing documentation
OS/2 .INF file
Plain text
Manpages
HTML
GNU info files
PDF files
LaTeX docs
BUILD
The short story
Prerequisites
Getting perl source
Application of the patches
Hand-editing
Making
Testing

A lot of bad free, Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT, op/fs.t, op/stat.t

Installing the built perl
a.out-style build
Building a binary distribution
Building custom .EXE files
Making executables with a custom collection of statically loaded extensions
Making executables with a custom search-paths
Build FAQ
Some / became \ in pdksh.
'errno' - unresolved external
Problems with tr or sed
Some problem (forget which ;-)
Library ... not found
Segfault in make
op/sprintf test failure
Specific (mis)features of OS/2 port
setpriority, getpriority
system()
extproc on the first line
Additional modules:
Prebuilt methods:

File::Copy::syscopy, DynaLoader::mod2fname, Cwd::current_drive(), Cwd::sys_chdir(name), Cwd::change_drive(name), Cwd::sys_is_absolute(name), Cwd::sys_is_rooted(name), Cwd::sys_is_relative(name), Cwd::sys_cwd(name), Cwd::sys_abspath(name, dir), Cwd::extLibpath([type]), Cwd::extLibpath_set( path [, type ] ), OS2::Error(do_harderror,do_exception), OS2::Errors2Drive(drive), OS2::SysInfo(), OS2::BootDrive(), OS2::MorphPM(serve), OS2::UnMorphPM(serve), OS2::Serve_Messages(force), OS2::Process_Messages(force [, cnt]), OS2::_control87(new,mask), OS2::get_control87(), OS2::set_control87_em(new=MCW_EM,mask=MCW_EM), OS2::DLLname([how [, \&xsub]])

Prebuilt variables:

$OS2::emx_rev, $OS2::emx_env, $OS2::os_ver, $OS2::is_aout, $OS2::can_fork, $OS2::nsyserror

Misfeatures
Modifications

popen, tmpnam, tmpfile, ctermid, stat, mkdir, rmdir, flock

Identifying DLLs
Centralized management of resources

HAB, HMQ, Treating errors reported by OS/2 API, CheckOSError(expr), CheckWinError(expr), SaveWinError(expr), SaveCroakWinError(expr,die,name1,name2), WinError_2_Perl_rc, FillWinError, FillOSError(rc), Loading DLLs and ordinals in DLLs

Perl flavors
perl.exe
perl_.exe
perl__.exe
perl___.exe
Why strange names?
Why dynamic linking?
Why chimera build?
ENVIRONMENT
PERLLIB_PREFIX
PERL_BADLANG
PERL_BADFREE
PERL_SH_DIR
USE_PERL_FLOCK
TMP or TEMP
Evolution
Text-mode filehandles
Priorities
DLL name mangling: pre 5.6.2
DLL name mangling: 5.6.2 and beyond

Global DLLs, specific DLLs, BEGINLIBPATH and ENDLIBPATH, . from LIBPATH

DLL forwarder generation
Threading
Calls to external programs
Memory allocation
Threads

COND_WAIT, os2.c

BUGS
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO

perlos390, README.os390 - building and installing Perl for OS/390 and z/OS

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Tools
Unpacking Perl distribution on OS/390
Setup and utilities for Perl on OS/390
Configure Perl on OS/390
Build, Test, Install Perl on OS/390
Build Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
Testing Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
Installation Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
Usage Hints for Perl on OS/390
Floating Point Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
Modules and Extensions for Perl on OS/390
AUTHORS
SEE ALSO
Mailing list for Perl on OS/390
HISTORY

perlos400, README.os400 - Perl version 5 on OS/400

DESCRIPTION
Compiling Perl for OS/400 PASE
Installing Perl in OS/400 PASE
Using Perl in OS/400 PASE
Known Problems
Perl on ILE
AUTHORS

perlplan9 - Plan 9-specific documentation for Perl

DESCRIPTION
Invoking Perl
What's in Plan 9 Perl
What's not in Plan 9 Perl
Perl5 Functions not currently supported in Plan 9 Perl
Signals in Plan 9 Perl
COMPILING AND INSTALLING PERL ON PLAN 9
Installing Perl Documentation on Plan 9
BUGS
Revision date
AUTHOR

perlqnx, README.qnx - Perl version 5 on QNX

DESCRIPTION
Required Software for Compiling Perl on QNX4

/bin/sh, ar, nm, cpp, make

Outstanding Issues with Perl on QNX4
QNX auxiliary files

qnx/ar, qnx/cpp

Outstanding issues with perl under QNX6
AUTHOR

perlriscos, README.riscos - Perl version 5 for RISC OS

DESCRIPTION
BUILD
AUTHOR

perlsolaris, README.solaris - Perl version 5 on Solaris systems

DESCRIPTION
Solaris Version Numbers.
RESOURCES

Solaris FAQ, Precompiled Binaries, Solaris Documentation

SETTING UP
File Extraction Problems on Solaris.
Environment for Compiling perl on Solaris
RUN CONFIGURE.
64-bit perl on Solaris.
Threads in perl on Solaris.
Malloc Issues with perl on Solaris.
MAKE PROBLEMS.

Dynamic Loading Problems With GNU as and GNU ld, ld.so.1: ./perl: fatal: relocation error:, dlopen: stub interception failed, #error "No DATAMODEL_NATIVE specified", sh: ar: not found

MAKE TEST
op/stat.t test 4 in Solaris
nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent
PREBUILT BINARIES OF PERL FOR SOLARIS.
RUNTIME ISSUES FOR PERL ON SOLARIS.
Limits on Numbers of Open Files on Solaris.
SOLARIS-SPECIFIC MODULES.
SOLARIS-SPECIFIC PROBLEMS WITH MODULES.
Proc::ProcessTable on Solaris
BSD::Resource on Solaris
Net::SSLeay on Solaris
SunOS 4.x
AUTHOR

perlsymbian, README.symbian - Perl version 5 on Symbian OS

DESCRIPTION
Compiling Perl on Symbian
Compilation problems
PerlApp
sisify.pl
Using Perl in Symbian
TO DO
WARNING
NOTE
AUTHOR
COPYRIGHT
LICENSE
HISTORY

perltru64, README.tru64 - Perl version 5 on Tru64 (formerly known as Digital UNIX formerly known as DEC OSF/1) systems

DESCRIPTION
Compiling Perl 5 on Tru64
Using Large Files with Perl on Tru64
Threaded Perl on Tru64
Long Doubles on Tru64
DB_File tests failing on Tru64
64-bit Perl on Tru64
Warnings about floating-point overflow when compiling Perl on Tru64
Testing Perl on Tru64
ext/ODBM_File/odbm Test Failing With Static Builds
Perl Fails Because Of Unresolved Symbol sockatmark
AUTHOR

perluts - Perl under UTS

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
BUILDING PERL ON UTS
Installing the built perl on UTS
AUTHOR

perlvmesa, README.vmesa - building and installing Perl for VM/ESA.

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Unpacking Perl Distribution on VM/ESA
Setup Perl and utilities on VM/ESA
Configure Perl on VM/ESA
Testing Anomalies of Perl on VM/ESA
Usage Hints for Perl on VM/ESA
AUTHORS
SEE ALSO
Mailing list for Perl on VM/ESA

perlvms - VMS-specific documentation for Perl

DESCRIPTION
Installation
Organization of Perl Images
Core Images
Perl Extensions
Installing static extensions
Installing dynamic extensions
File specifications
Syntax
Filename Case
Wildcard expansion
Pipes
PERL5LIB and PERLLIB
The Perl Forked Debugger
PERL_VMS_EXCEPTION_DEBUG
Command line
I/O redirection and backgrounding
Command line switches

-i, -S, -u

Perl functions

File tests, backticks, binmode FILEHANDLE, crypt PLAINTEXT, USER, die, dump, exec LIST, fork, getpwent, getpwnam, getpwuid, gmtime, kill, qx//, select (system call), stat EXPR, system LIST, time, times, unlink LIST, utime LIST, waitpid PID,FLAGS

Perl variables

%ENV, CRTL_ENV, CLISYM_[LOCAL], Any other string, $!, $^E, $?, $|

Standard modules with VMS-specific differences
SDBM_File
Revision date
AUTHOR

perlvos, README.vos - Perl for Stratus VOS

SYNOPSIS
BUILDING PERL FOR VOS
INSTALLING PERL IN VOS
USING PERL IN VOS
Restrictions of Perl on VOS
Handling of underflow and overflow
TEST STATUS
SUPPORT STATUS
AUTHOR
LAST UPDATE

perlwin32 - Perl under Windows

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Setting Up Perl on Win32

Make, Command Shell, Borland C++, Microsoft Visual C++, Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 Express Edition, Microsoft Visual C++ 2005 Express Edition, Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003, Microsoft Platform SDK 64-bit Compiler, MinGW release 3 with gcc, MinGW release 1 with gcc

Building
Testing Perl on Win32
Installation of Perl on Win32
Usage Hints for Perl on Win32

Environment Variables, File Globbing, Using perl from the command line, Building Extensions, Command-line Wildcard Expansion, Win32 Specific Extensions, Notes on 64-bit Windows

Running Perl Scripts
Miscellaneous Things
BUGS AND CAVEATS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
AUTHORS

Gary Ng <71564.1743@CompuServe.COM>, Gurusamy Sarathy <gsar@activestate.com>, Nick Ing-Simmons <nick@ing-simmons.net>, Jan Dubois <jand@activestate.com>, Steve Hay <steve.hay@uk.radan.com>

SEE ALSO
HISTORY

PRAGMA DOCUMENTATION

attributes - get/set subroutine or variable attributes

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
What import does
Built-in Attributes

lvalue, method, locked

Available Subroutines

get, reftype

Package-specific Attribute Handling

FETCH_type_ATTRIBUTES, MODIFY_type_ATTRIBUTES

Syntax of Attribute Lists
EXPORTS
Default exports
Available exports
Export tags defined
EXAMPLES
MORE EXAMPLES
SEE ALSO

autouse::lib::autouse, autouse - postpone load of modules until a function is used

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
WARNING
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO

mro - Method Resolution Order

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
OVERVIEW
The C3 MRO
What is C3?
How does C3 work
Functions
mro::get_linear_isa($classname[, $type])
mro::set_mro ($classname, $type)
mro::get_mro($classname)
mro::get_isarev($classname)
mro::is_universal($classname)
mro::invalidate_all_method_caches()
mro::method_changed_in($classname)
mro::get_pkg_gen($classname)
next::method
next::can
maybe::next::method
SEE ALSO
The original Dylan paper

http://www.webcom.com/haahr/dylan/linearization-oopsla96.html

Pugs
Parrot

http://aspn.activestate.com/ASPN/Mail/Message/perl6-internals/2746631, http://use.perl.org/~autrijus/journal/25768

http://www.python.org/2.3/mro.html, http://www.python.org/2.2.2/descrintro.html#mro

C3 for TinyCLOS

http://www.call-with-current-continuation.org/eggs/c3.html

Class::C3

Class::C3

AUTHOR

re - Perl pragma to alter regular expression behaviour

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
'taint' mode
'eval' mode
'debug' mode
'Debug' mode

Compile related options, COMPILE, PARSE, OPTIMISE, TRIEC, DUMP, Execute related options, EXECUTE, MATCH, TRIEE, INTUIT, Extra debugging options, EXTRA, BUFFERS, TRIEM, STATE, STACK, OPTIMISEM, OFFSETS, OFFSETSDBG, Other useful flags, ALL, All, MORE, More

Exportable Functions

is_regexp($ref), regexp_pattern($ref), regmust($ref), regname($name,$all), regnames($all), regnames_count()

SEE ALSO

autodie - Replace functions with ones that succeed or die with lexical scope

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
EXCEPTIONS
CATEGORIES
FUNCTION SPECIFIC NOTES
flock
system/exec
GOTCHAS
DIAGNOSTICS

:void cannot be used with lexical scope, No user hints defined for %s

BUGS
autodie and string eval
REPORTING BUGS
FEEDBACK
AUTHOR
LICENSE
SEE ALSO
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

autodiexception, autodie::exception - Exceptions from autodying functions.

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Common Methods
Advanced methods
SEE ALSO
LICENSE
AUTHOR

autodiexception::system, autodie::exception::system - Exceptions from autodying system().

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
stringify
LICENSE
AUTHOR

autodie::hints - Provide hints about user subroutines to autodie

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Introduction
What are hints?
Example hints
Manually setting hints from within your program
Adding hints to your module
Insisting on hints
Diagnostics

Attempts to set_hints_for unidentifiable subroutine, fail hints cannot be provided with either scalar or list hints for %s, %s hint missing for %s

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
AUTHOR
LICENSE
SEE ALSO

autouse - postpone load of modules until a function is used

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
WARNING
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO

base - Establish an ISA relationship with base classes at compile time

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
DIAGNOSTICS

Base class package "%s" is empty, Class 'Foo' tried to inherit from itself

HISTORY
CAVEATS
SEE ALSO

bigint - Transparent BigInteger support for Perl

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
use integer vs. use bigint
Options

a or accuracy, p or precision, t or trace, hex, oct, l, lib, try or only, v or version

Math Library
Internal Format
Sign
Methods

inf(), NaN(), e, PI, bexp(), bpi(), upgrade(), in_effect()

MATH LIBRARY
Caveat
CAVAETS

in_effect(), hex()/oct()

MODULES USED
EXAMPLES
LICENSE
SEE ALSO
AUTHORS

bignum - Transparent BigNumber support for Perl

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Options

a or accuracy, p or precision, t or trace, l or lib, hex, oct, v or version

Methods
Caveats

inf(), NaN(), e, PI(), bexp(), bpi(), upgrade(), in_effect()

Math Library
INTERNAL FORMAT
SIGN
CAVAETS

in_effect(), hex()/oct()

MODULES USED
EXAMPLES
LICENSE
SEE ALSO
AUTHORS

bigrat - Transparent BigNumber/BigRational support for Perl

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Modules Used
Math Library
Sign
Methods

inf(), NaN(), e, PI, bexp(), bpi(), upgrade(), in_effect()

MATH LIBRARY
Cavaet
Options

a or accuracy, p or precision, t or trace, l or lib, hex, oct, v or version

CAVAETS

in_effect(), hex()/oct()

EXAMPLES
perl -Mbigrat -le 'print sqrt(33)'
perl -Mbigrat -le 'print 2*255'
perl -Mbigrat -le 'print 4.5+2*255'
perl -Mbigrat -le 'print 3/7 + 5/7 + 8/3'       
perl -Mbigrat -le 'print 12->is_odd()';
perl -Mbignum=l,GMP -le 'print 7 ** 7777'
LICENSE
SEE ALSO
AUTHORS

blib - Use MakeMaker's uninstalled version of a package

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
BUGS
AUTHOR

bytes - Perl pragma to force byte semantics rather than character semantics

NOTICE
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
LIMITATIONS
SEE ALSO

charnames - define character names for \N{named} string literal escapes

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
ALIASES
CUSTOM ALIASES
Anonymous hashes
Alias file
Alias shortcut
charnames::viacode(code)
charnames::vianame(name)
CUSTOM TRANSLATORS
ILLEGAL CHARACTERS
BUGS

constant - Perl pragma to declare constants

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
NOTES
List constants
Defining multiple constants at once
Magic constants
TECHNICAL NOTES
CAVEATS
SEE ALSO
BUGS
AUTHORS

deprecate - Perl pragma for deprecating the core version of a module

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
EXPORT
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

diagnostics, splain - produce verbose warning diagnostics

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
The diagnostics Pragma
The splain Program
EXAMPLES
INTERNALS
BUGS
AUTHOR

encoding - allows you to write your script in non-ascii or non-utf8

SYNOPSIS
ABSTRACT
Literal Conversions
PerlIO layers for STD(IN|OUT)
Implicit upgrading for byte strings
Side effects
FEATURES THAT REQUIRE 5.8.1

"NON-EUC" doublebyte encodings, tr//, DATA pseudo-filehandle

USAGE

use encoding [ENCNAME] ;, use encoding ENCNAME [ STDIN => ENCNAME_IN ...] ;, use encoding ENCNAME Filter=>1;, no encoding;

The Filter Option
CAVEATS
NOT SCOPED
DO NOT MIX MULTIPLE ENCODINGS
tr/// with ranges

Legend of characters above

EXAMPLE - Greekperl
KNOWN PROBLEMS

literals in regex that are longer than 127 bytes, EBCDIC, format, Thread safety

The Logic of :locale
HISTORY
SEE ALSO

encoding::warnings - Warn on implicit encoding conversions

VERSION
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Overview of the problem
Detecting the problem
Solving the problem

Upgrade both sides to unicode-strings, Downgrade both sides to byte-strings, Specify the encoding for implicit byte-string upgrading, PerlIO layers for STDIN and STDOUT, Literal conversions, Implicit upgrading for byte-strings

CAVEATS
SEE ALSO
AUTHORS
COPYRIGHT

feature - Perl pragma to enable new features

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Lexical effect
no feature
The 'switch' feature
The 'say' feature
the 'state' feature
the 'unicode_strings' feature
FEATURE BUNDLES
IMPLICIT LOADING

fields - compile-time class fields

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

new, phash

SEE ALSO

filetest - Perl pragma to control the filetest permission operators

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Consider this carefully
The "access" sub-pragma
Limitation with regard to _

if - use a Perl module if a condition holds

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
BUGS
AUTHOR

inc::latest - use modules bundled in inc/ if they are newer than installed ones

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Special notes on bundling
USAGE
Author-mode

loaded_modules(), write(), bundle_module()

As bundled in inc/
AUTHOR
COPYRIGHT
SEE ALSO

integer - Perl pragma to use integer arithmetic instead of floating point

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

less - perl pragma to request less of something

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
FOR MODULE AUTHORS
BOOLEAN = less->of( FEATURE )
FEATURES = less->of()
CAVEATS

This probably does nothing, This works only on 5.10+

lib - manipulate @INC at compile time

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Adding directories to @INC
Deleting directories from @INC
Restoring original @INC
CAVEATS
NOTES
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

locale - Perl pragma to use and avoid POSIX locales for built-in operations

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

open - perl pragma to set default PerlIO layers for input and output

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
NONPERLIO FUNCTIONALITY
IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS
SEE ALSO

ops - Perl pragma to restrict unsafe operations when compiling

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
SEE ALSO

overload - Package for overloading Perl operations

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Declaration of overloaded functions
Calling Conventions for Binary Operations

FALSE, TRUE, undef

Calling Conventions for Unary Operations
Calling Conventions for Mutators

++ and --, x= and other assignment versions

Overloadable Operations

Arithmetic operations, Comparison operations, Bit operations, Increment and decrement, Transcendental functions, Boolean, string, numeric and regexp conversions, Iteration, File tests, Matching, Dereferencing, Special

Inheritance and overloading

Strings as values of use overload directive, Overloading of an operation is inherited by derived classes

SPECIAL SYMBOLS FOR use overload
Last Resort
Fallback

undef, TRUE, defined, but FALSE

Copy Constructor

Example

MAGIC AUTOGENERATION

Assignment forms of arithmetic operations, Conversion operations, Increment and decrement, abs($a), Unary minus, Negation, Concatenation, Comparison operations, Iterator, Dereferencing, Copy operator

Minimal set of overloaded operations
Losing overloading
Run-time Overloading
Public functions

overload::StrVal(arg), overload::Overloaded(arg), overload::Method(obj,op)

Overloading constants

integer, float, binary, q, qr

IMPLEMENTATION
Metaphor clash
Cookbook
Two-face scalars
Two-face references
Symbolic calculator
Really symbolic calculator
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO
DIAGNOSTICS

Odd number of arguments for overload::constant, `%s' is not an overloadable type, `%s' is not a code reference

BUGS

overloading - perl pragma to lexically control overloading

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

no overloading, no overloading @ops, use overloading, use overloading @ops

parent - Establish an ISA relationship with base classes at compile time

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
DIAGNOSTICS

Class 'Foo' tried to inherit from itself

HISTORY
CAVEATS
SEE ALSO
AUTHORS AND CONTRIBUTORS
MAINTAINER
LICENSE

sigtrap - Perl pragma to enable simple signal handling

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
OPTIONS
SIGNAL HANDLERS

stack-trace, die, handler your-handler

SIGNAL LISTS

normal-signals, error-signals, old-interface-signals

OTHER

untrapped, any, signal, number

EXAMPLES

sort - perl pragma to control sort() behaviour

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
CAVEATS

strict - Perl pragma to restrict unsafe constructs

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

strict refs, strict vars, strict subs

HISTORY

subs - Perl pragma to predeclare sub names

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

threads - Perl interpreter-based threads

VERSION
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

$thr = threads->create(FUNCTION, ARGS), $thr->join(), $thr->detach(), threads->detach(), threads->self(), $thr->tid(), threads->tid(), "$thr", threads->object($tid), threads->yield(), threads->list(), threads->list(threads::all), threads->list(threads::running), threads->list(threads::joinable), $thr1->equal($thr2), async BLOCK;, $thr->error(), $thr->_handle(), threads->_handle()

EXITING A THREAD

threads->exit(), threads->exit(status), die(), exit(status), use threads 'exi